THESIS: General Augusto Pinochet Ugarte was a Chilean dictator who showed no mercy and permanently transformed Chile's economy. Despite a few benefits to Chilean society, his covetousness, malice, and unprecedented ambition eventually led to his inevitable downfall. Question One: What are four categorically different significant facts that illustrate Pinochet following the path to becoming a dictator? I. Early Life
A. Birth and Schooling
1. Born in Valparaiso, Chile
2. Attended primary and secondary school
3. Began military school in 1931 in Santiago graduating as a Second Lieutenant in four years
B. Early Military Career
4. Moved to Maipo Regiment as a sub-lieutenant in 1939, returned to infantry school a year later 5. Entered War Academy, studies postponed due to mission in Lota 6. Promoted to officer chief of staff, returned to school as teacher and head of a military magazine (Cien Aguilas) * The Guardian and Washington Post
C. Conspired with Student Officers
7. Used his position in the military academy to plan with his student officers against Allende 8. Some claim he had absolutely no involvement in the coup’s planning 9. Started two years prior to the coup
D. Interactions with the U.S.
10. U.S. promise to him to support a coup using whatever means necessary 11. Phone conversation between U.S. President Nixon and his secretary of state about the U.S. having helped coup forces in Chile 12. U.S. targets him as possible backer of U.S. coup in 1972 * CBC News, Pinochet-A-Biography, and Youtube
III. Extensive political and military study
E. Dislike of Socialism and Communism
13. First learned of the “diabolical attractions of Marxism” in the 1930’s where Marxists played a major role in Chilean government 14. Was afraid of Christian Democrats.
15. Opposed many of Allende’s economic policies that nationalized economic and social programs F. College studies and development of ideals
16. Studied law and social sciences at University of Chile 17. Later traveled to Ecuador where he taught at the National War Academy
18. Studied law and established ideas of patriotism, respect for authority, and capitalism. * CBC News, Encyclopedia Britannica, and EBSCOhost IV. Military Growth
G. Path to Commander-in-Chief
19. Pinochet had become an officer chief of staff
20. Appointed General Chief of Staff in 1972
21. Kept rising through the ranks due to his apparent neutral political affiliation H. Commander-in-Chief and the coup
22. Appointed Commander-in-chief by Marxist Allende in 1973 23. Pinochet disliked current economic state as it was steadily declining, coup was already planned out and ready 24. Led the coup that overthrew Allende, a socialist, on 11 September, 1973 * New York Times, Encyclopedia Britannica, and Spartacus
Question Two: What are some of Pinochet’s character traits? I. Brutality
A. Torture, Killings, and Exile
1. Some 3,000 people were killed because they were political opponents of his regime 2. Thousands more were sent into exile
3. At least 29,000 people were tortured
B. Effect on people
4. People were taught to fear and respect government authority 5. Families were separated
6. Human rights violations made him an international criminal * New York Times and Washington Post
C. Money Laundering
7. Riggs Bank decided to pay $8 million to victims of his regime out of his own account.
8. Pinochet held 28 different accounts at the bank, which he used to hide millions of dollars. 9....