Attitudes and Job Satisfaction

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Session Objectives
• To understand attitudes, their components

and how they affect our behaviours • Compare and contrast the major job attitudes. • Define job satisfaction and show how it can be measured. • Summarize the main causes of job satisfaction.

Attitudes are evaluative statements- either favourable or unfavourable- about objects, people or events. Jung's definition of attitude is a "readiness of the psyche to act or react in a certain way" (Jung, [1921] Most attitudes are the result of either direct experience or observational learning from the environment.

Mainly there are 3 components of Attitudes-

Cognitive

Affective

The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude

The opinion or belief segment of an attitude

Behavioral

Attitude

An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something

Moderating Variables
 The most powerful moderators of the attitude-behavior

relationship are:
 Importance of the attitude-reflects fundamental values,

self interest or identification with groups or individuals have strong relation with behaviour  Correspondence to behavior- closer the attitude and behaviour, stronger the relationship  Accessibility- the more we talk, the more we remember and more its effect on behaviour

 Existence of social pressures- in accord with the attitude facilitates expression and vice versa  Personal and direct experience of the attitude.

 Leon Festinger (1957)

– No, the reverse is sometimes true!  Cognitive Dissonance: Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes  Individuals seek to reduce this uncomfortable gap,

or dissonance, to reach stability and consistency
 The stronger the dissonance, the greater the urge to

reduce it or actively avoid situations and information that create awareness of dissonance existing

Ways to reduce dissonance
- Consistency is achieved  by changing the attitude causing dissonance  modifying or changing the behaviors,  or through rationalization

Desire to reduce dissonance depends on:


Importance of elements creating dissonance
Degree of individual influence over elements Rewards involved in dissonance





Predicting Behavior from Attitudes
 Closer the match between attitude & behavior, stronger

the relationship:  Specific attitudes predict specific behavior  General attitudes predict general behavior  More frequently expressed an attitude, better predictor it is.  High social pressures reduce the relationship and may cause dissonance.  Attitudes based on personal experience are stronger predictors.

What are the Major Job Attitudes?
 Job Satisfaction  A positive feeling about the job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics  Job Involvement  Degree of psychological identification with the job where perceived performance is important to self-worth

Psychological Empowerment
 Belief in the degree of influence over the job,

competence, job meaningfulness, and autonomy

Another Major Job Attitude
 Organizational Commitment
 Identifying with a particular organization and its

goals, while wishing to maintain membership in the organization.  Three dimensions:  Affective – emotional attachment to organization and belief in its values  Continuance Commitment – economic value of staying  Normative - moral or ethical obligations  Has some relation to performance, especially for new employees.

More Major Job Attitudes…
 Perceived Organizational Support (POS)  Degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being.  Higher when rewards are fair, employees are involved in decision-making, and supervisors are seen as supportive.  High POS is related to higher OCBs and performance.  Employee Engagement  The degree of involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the job.  Engaged employees are passionate about their...
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