ATTITUDES ARE SHAPED BY THE INTERACTION OF SITUATIONS, EXPERIENCES AND VALUES. ATTITUDES ARE LEARNED, AND CARRIED INTO THE WORK ENVIRONMENT. THIS CHAPTER EXAMINES HOW ATTITUDES ARE FORMED AND HOW THEY AFFECT OUR PERCEPTIONS AND OUR ACTIONS IN RELATIONSHIP TO ETHICS. DEVELOPMENT OF VALUES IS DISCUSSED BY EXAMINING ROKEACH’S INSTRUMENTAL AND TERMINAL VALUES RESEARCH. A MODEL OF ETHICAL BEHAVIOR IS PRESENTED, AND FACTORS AFFECTING ETHICAL BEHAVIOR ARE DISCUSSED.
After reading this chapter, you should be able to do the following:
1.Explain the ABC model of an attitude.
2.Describe how attitudes are formed.
3.Define job satisfaction and organizational commitment and discuss the importance of these two work attitudes.
4.Identify the characteristics of the source, target, and message that affect persuasion. 5.Distinguish between instrumental and terminal values.
6.Explain how managers can deal with the diverse value systems that characterize the global environment.
7.Describe a model of individual and organizational influences on ethical behavior. 8.Discuss how value systems, locus of control, Machiavellianism, and cognitive moral development affect ethical behavior.
CHAPTER 4 INTRODUCES THE FOLLOWING KEY TERMS:
organizational citizenship behavior
cognitive moral development
THE CHAPTER SUMMARIZED
I.THINKING AHEAD: VALUES SEE HARLEY-DAVIDSON THROUGH THE TOUGH TIMES
Attitudes are an integral part of the workplace that directly impact employee behavior. Understanding how people form attitudes, how those attitudes affect work behavior, and persuasion will help managers improve their ability to change counterproductive attitudes.
A.The ABC Model
The ABC Model includes three areas: affect, behavioral intentions, and cognition. Affect is the emotional component of an attitude. When we ask an employee how he or she feels about a new policy, we are requesting an affective response. Behavioral intentions relate to the action(s) an individual would take given the opportunity. Cognition is a verbal statement regarding one’s belief about a specific person or situation, which reflects perceptions and attitudes. People experience cognitive dissonance when their behavior conflicts with their own attitudes or beliefs.
All attitudes are learned, and our attitudes vary based on our experiences and learning environment. One way in which our attitudes are formed is through social learning, which involves the influences of family, peers, colleagues, and institutions.
C.Attitudes and Behavior
The association between attitudes and behaviors intrigues researchers. Attitude enactment is not as simple as thinking positively to produce positive results. The degree to which our behavior matches our attitudes has to do with relevance, personality factors, and social context.
Two primary work attitudes are job satisfaction and organizational commitment.
Job satisfaction is the pleasurable or positive emotional state resulting from the appraisal of one's job or job experience. There are several measures of job satisfaction. One of the most widely used measures is the Job Descriptive Index. Job satisfaction correlates with several other outcomes, including organizational citizenship behavior – behavior that is above and beyond the call of duty.
Organizational commitment is the strength of an individual's identification with...