Functional Theory of Attitude –
From the marketing point of view this is based on the need fulfilment of a buying behaviour. The functions that attitudes perform are :
1.Utilitarian – Consumers buy products to fulfil their need, enjoy some benefit, get someextra features & receive after-sales service. If they get it as per their expectations, theydevelop a positive attitude towards that product. If not then a negative attitude isdeveloped. Marketers usually stress & highlight the positive aspects of their products toform a positive attitude.
2.Value-expressive – The importance of values in our life can’t be over emphasised. Welearn it thro’ our upbringing & training. This value system prevents or encourages thebuyers to buy certain products related to smoking, drugs, environment, health, ethics,wildlife, etc. 3.Ego-defensive – We are all concerned about our self-esteem & ego and always try to safeguard those. Products related to boosting the ego or self esteem are the target of such akind of attitude. 4.Knowledge function – Man is ever inquisitive, curious, seeking knowledge. He gets newinformation and understanding about products and services which help in creating,modifying & changing the attitude towards it. 5.Combination function – More often individuals develop attitudes towards a product, which are a combined effect of all these functions.
Theories of Attitude Development (Theory of Cognitive Dissonance) – Usually behaviour is the result of attitude. But there are certain theories which suggest thatbehaviour precedes attitude. They also suggest that on the basis of behaviour & experience, aperson modifies his attitude. This is the theory of cognitive dissonance. Dissonance is a stateof discord where one experiences between one’s own behaviour & attitude. Even if a persondoesn’t like certain things(attitude) he compels himself to do that(behaviour). Thus theattitude is said to be in conflict with the behaviour. The theory...
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