An attitude is a cognitive element; it always remains inside a person. In organizational context, employees have attitudes related to job security or uncertainty, prestige of the department and the work that does etc. The individual's attitudes toward these factors are indicative of his apathy or enthusiasm toward the activities and objectives of the organization. Nature & Characteristics of Attitude
An attitude is a tendency to react positively or negatively in regard to an object. For example, a person who has a positive attitude towards the religion is likely to enjoy going to worship services, believe that the religious institutions foster morality and may, therefore, contribute financially also. An attitude is always directed toward some object, such as the temple, school, etc. A person who has an attitude has a readiness or a disposition to react favorable or unfavorably to anyone of a large variety of related situations. Until some situation arouses it, however, the attitude is latent. Attitude can be characterized by :
Valence: It refers to the magnitude or degree of favorableness or unfavorableness toward the object/event. If a person is relatively indifferent toward an object then his attitude has low valence. Multiplicity: It refers to the number of elements constituting the attitude. For example, one student may show interest in studies, but another not only shows interest, but also works hard, is sincere, and serious. Relation to Needs: Attitudes vary in relation to needs they serve. For example, attitudes of an individual toward the pictures may serve only entertainment needs. On the other hand, attitudes of an employee toward task may serve strong needs for security, achievement, recognition, and satisfaction. Types of Attitudes
A person can have thousands of attitudes, but OB focuses the attention only a very limited number of job related attitudes. The following are some types of attitudes: Job Satisfaction: It refers to an...