Attention-deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Behavioral Management

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In almost every classroom, there will be a child that will bring the most attention of the teacher to him/her. Immediately, one might believe that this child has ADD as it’s most commonly related to a hyperactive child. However, ADD is not the correct term to describe this child, and furthermore, this child might not have ADD, but just a simple case of hyperactivity. First of all, ADD is not the correct name for this disorder. ADD is attention deficit disorder, however the correct name for this type of disorder is ADHD, which means attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It was renamed ADHD in 1994 by the American Psychiatric Association and includes three subtypes: inattentive, hyperactive, and combination of these two (Tylan) Secondly, not every child that is hyperactive has ADHD. All children have difficulty paying attention, following directions, or being quiet from time to time, but for children with ADHD, these behaviors occur more frequently and are more disturbing to the children and those around them. The most conservative estimates suggest that about 3 to 5 percent of children under the age of 18 have Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (Ingersoll 1).

The core problems of ADHD are attention problems, difficulty controlling impulsive responding, and excessive motor activity (Ingersoll15). Each of these problems can multiply into many different sub-categories. Attention problems included inability to pay attention to details or a tendency to make careless errors in schoolwork or other activities, difficulty with sustained attention in tasks or play activities, apparent listening problems, difficulty following instructions, problems organizing tasks and activities, avoidance or dislike of tasks that require mental effort, tendency to lose things like toys, notebooks, or homework, distractibility, and forgetfulness in daily activities. Impulsive respond and excessive motor activity included fidgeting or squirming, difficulty remaining seated, excessive running or climbing, difficulty playing quietly, always seeming to be "on the go, excessive talking, blurting out answers before hearing the full question, difficulty waiting for a turn or in line, and problems with interrupting or intruding.

The disorder known as ADHD has been called by many names over the years, including minimal brain damage, minimal cerebral dysfunction, hyperactive child syndrome, and attention deficit disorder with or without hyperactivity (Batshaw 449). There are no symptoms for ADHD. There are no specific physical examination findings or blood, urine, brain imaging, brain wave, or other neurological findings that establish the diagnosis for ADHD (Silver 207). The disorder is only diagnosed by observing behaviors through situations. Scientists have not yet identified a single cause behind all the different patterns of behavior--and they may never find just one. Rather, someday scientists may find that ADHD is actually an umbrella term for several slightly different disorders (Neuwirth). ADHD can be difficult to diagnose, especially when co-existing disorders are present.  Additionally, there are medical conditions with symptoms that can mimic some of the symptoms of ADHD. Some of these conditions included autism, lead toxicity, sensory disorder, and Hypothyroidism (Bailey).

There are methods to treating Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder, however there are too many uncertainties for a single method to work effectively. The comprehensive treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder initially involved several models of help, including individual and family education, appropriate school programs, and specific medications (Silver 249). Each of these methods can target each sub-type of the disorder, but not one type of treatment is capable of curing the disorder completely. Attention deficit hyperactive disorder has no real treatment, but it has a series of steps that can be taken in order to control the...
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