California State University, Fullerton
There has been an abundance of research done on both the relationships between self-esteem and gender or between self-esteem and dating and sexual behavior. Although self-esteem is just one subset of this scale, neither gender nor dating and sexual behavior has been thoroughly researched in relation to the automatic thoughts questionnaire. In performing various data analysis in order to test the set of research hypotheses, it was found that prediction of ATQ scores and relationships stemming from them would not likely withstand the tests of reliability or repeatability. After carefully forming the research hypothesis, based on prior knowledge and the relationship between self-esteem with gender, relationship status, seriousness of relationships and length of relationships, data calculations showed no relationships between ATQ and the aforementioned variables. All research hypotheses were rejected and all null hypotheses for the variable sets were retained in this study.
Automatic Thoughts Questionnaire Score and Relationship Status
Self-esteem has been studied in relation to many different variables. From risk of drug addiction to personal success levels, self-esteem seems to have a relation with a wide variety of human behaviors. However, self-esteem is also used as a component of a larger scalar measurement of human self-description known as the automatic thoughts questionnaire. This questionnaire is a 30-item instrument using personal adjustment and desire for change scores, negative self-concept scores, low self-esteem, and helplessness scores in order to measure the frequency of automatic negative statements about the self.(Holton & Kendall, 1980) Unfortunately, not much research has been done regarding the automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ) and its relation with various measureable categories of human behavior.
Previous research, however, is available in regards to gender, sexuality, and relationships. One such study was completed by Gina Bellavia and Sandra Murray at the University of Buffalo, The State University of New York. Stated briefly, Bellavia and Murray hypothesized that people with lower self-esteem would feel responsibility for their partners negative moods when the actual cause was unclear, which lead to feelings of rejection and negative feelings toward the partner. The results of the study did, in fact, support the various research hypotheses and suggested an effect of self-esteem on romantic relationships and possibly a correlation between the quality of a romantic relationship and self-esteem levels. (Bellavia & Murray, 2003) An additional study was done by Kelley J. Robinson and Jessica J. Cameron in December of 2011 at the University of Manitoba, Winnipeg in Canada. This study examined a sample of over 600 dating heterosexual couples. Lower self-esteem individuals and their partners reported lower satisfaction and commitment to their relationships than did higher self-esteem individuals and their partners. Data also showed that the sum of both partners self-esteem levels and a positive correlation with the rating of the quality of relationships between the two\ partners. (Robinson & Cameron, 2011)
A larger, more generalized study questioned 480 Israeli adolescents and found that adolescents who had steady dates were perceived by their peers as possessing higher self-esteem, self-perception of higher self-esteem, higher correspondence to their gender’s identity, and self-perception of higher correspondence to their gender’s identity, In other terms, results of this study suggested a positive link between steady dating and self-esteem and sex role identity. (Kelly & Samet, 1987)
In terms of gender, such studies seek to measure the difference in self-esteem between males and females or there are studies that specifically measure...