# Atpl Summary

Topics: Air traffic control, Equator, Pressure Pages: 51 (11638 words) Published: April 19, 2013
Formulas / ATPL theory summary
(Rob Groothuis)

Index ATPL

Page 2 to 2 Page 3 to 14 Page 15 to 18 Page 19 to 26 Page 27 to 31 Page 32 to 33 Page 34 to 34 Page 35 to 36 Page 37 to 41 Page 42 to 45 Page 46 to 48 Page 49 to 56 Page 57 to 57 Page 58 to 59 Page 60 to 60

Handy formulas / guidelines general Formulas all subjects General navigation Meteorology Instrumentation Communications VFR / IFR Mass and balance Flight planning Human performance & limitations Radio navigation Principles of flight Aviation law Operational procedures Performance Aircraft general knowledge

-1-

Handy formulas/guidelines general
**PUSH THE HEAD AND PULL THE TAIL** intercepting NDB QDR/QDM

glidepath ⋅ height ⋅ ( ft ) =

glidepath ⋅ angle × distance (ft) ≈ (300 ft/nm) 60

rate of descent (ft/min): GS x 5 = 3° glide path climb gradient = rate ⋅ of ⋅ c lim b × 6000 TAS × 6080

glide path in ° =

...% x 60 100
TAS + 7 (approximation) 10

angle of bank in rate 1 turn = radius of turn (NM) =

TAS rate × 60 × π

V 2 (m / s ) radius of turn (m) = 10 × tan⋅ bankangle

1 cos⋅ bankangle

load ⋅ factor = VStall increasing factor
IAS (position/instrument error) RAS/CAS (compressibility) EAS (density) TAS

EAS =

relative ⋅ density x TAS (example: relative density = ¼ at 40000 ft)

VOR’s variation at station / NDB’s variation at aircraft. relative bearing + true heading = true bearing QDR + var. = QTE (QDR = magnetic from station / QTE = true from station) QDM ± 180° = QDR (radial) / QDM = ’’bearings on the RMI’’ (QDR = magnetic to) LSS (kt) = 38,94 T (° K ) [273°K = 0°C]

LSS = 661 kt (at sea level at ISA temp.= 288 k) LSS = 573 kt (ISA tropopause temp.= 216,5 k)

mach ⋅ no. =

TAS LSS
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departure (E/W) in NM = ∆ longitude (in minutes) x cosine latitude (earth) convergency = ∆ longitude x sine mean latitude conversion angle = ½ x convergency

northern hemisphere

rumbline great circle

southern hemisphere

great circle rumbline

Mercator projection; scale = scale x or ÷ cosine ∆ latitude ( x from equator / ÷ to equator) simple conic / Lamberts projection (chart) convergency = ∆ longitude x sine latitude (or parallel of origin / constant of the cone) Polar stereographic (chart) convergency = ∆ longitude

east north south

east
(grid navigation) convergence = ∆ longitude from datum meridian (grid navigation) grivation = variation + convergence

glidepath ⋅ height =

glidepath ⋅ angle × 60

distance (ft) ≈ (300 ft/nm)

rate of descent (ft/min) ≈ GS (NM) x 5 (at 3° glide slope)

glide path in ° =

...% 100

x 60

mach ⋅ no. =

TAS LSS
[273°K = 0°C]

LSS ≡ 38,94 T (° K )
time to

PNR / PSR ⋅ (radius ⋅ of ⋅ action) = CP = D× H (O + H )

E×H (O + H )

/ E= safe endurance, H=GS home, O=GS out.

distance to

/ D=distance between airfields

point of equal time, moving into the wind.

ISA

15°C / 1013,25 mb / 1225 Gr/M3 = International Standard Atmosphere

-3-

1,98 °C/1000ft lapse rate above MSL up to tropopause of 36000ft; remains constant at -56,5°C up to 66000ft then increases by 0,3 °C /1000ft up to 105000ft. VOR’s variation at station / NDB’s variation at aircraft. relative bearing + true heading = true bearing QDR + var. = QTE (QDR = magnetic from station / QTE = true from station) QDM ± 180° = QDR (radial) / QDM = ’’bearings on the RMI’’

NDB’s

plotting more than 2° longitudinal difference, convergency should be taken into account. from magnetic to true to plot is algebraic sum, from true (plotline) to QDM/QDR is algebraic sum (VARIATION).

C + Dev. = M + Var. = T
NDB bearing

move aircraft meridian to NDB and take aircraft position variation.

relative ⋅ height ( ft ) range( NM ) = 9,4 depression ⋅ angle

ATPL formulas – Meteorology
DALR = 3 °C/1000ft SALR = 1,8 °C/1000ft in temperate climates (not constant) S.L - 1013mb – 27 ft/mb // 18000 ft – 500mb – 48 ft/mb...