(Rob Groothuis)

Index ATPL

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Handy formulas / guidelines general Formulas all subjects General navigation Meteorology Instrumentation Communications VFR / IFR Mass and balance Flight planning Human performance & limitations Radio navigation Principles of flight Aviation law Operational procedures Performance Aircraft general knowledge

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Handy formulas/guidelines general

**PUSH THE HEAD AND PULL THE TAIL** intercepting NDB QDR/QDM

glidepath ⋅ height ⋅ ( ft ) =

glidepath ⋅ angle × distance (ft) ≈ (300 ft/nm) 60

rate of descent (ft/min): GS x 5 = 3° glide path climb gradient = rate ⋅ of ⋅ c lim b × 6000 TAS × 6080

glide path in ° =

...% x 60 100

TAS + 7 (approximation) 10

angle of bank in rate 1 turn = radius of turn (NM) =

TAS rate × 60 × π

V 2 (m / s ) radius of turn (m) = 10 × tan⋅ bankangle

’’n’’ (load factor) =

1 cos⋅ bankangle

load ⋅ factor = VStall increasing factor

IAS (position/instrument error) RAS/CAS (compressibility) EAS (density) TAS

EAS =

relative ⋅ density x TAS (example: relative density = ¼ at 40000 ft)

VOR’s variation at station / NDB’s variation at aircraft. relative bearing + true heading = true bearing QDR + var. = QTE (QDR = magnetic from station / QTE = true from station) QDM ± 180° = QDR (radial) / QDM = ’’bearings on the RMI’’ (QDR = magnetic to) LSS (kt) = 38,94 T (° K ) [273°K = 0°C]

LSS = 661 kt (at sea level at ISA temp.= 288 k) LSS = 573 kt (ISA tropopause temp.= 216,5 k)

mach ⋅ no. =

TAS LSS

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ATPL formulas – General navigation

departure (E/W) in NM = ∆ longitude (in minutes) x cosine latitude (earth) convergency = ∆ longitude x sine mean latitude conversion angle = ½ x convergency

northern hemisphere

rumbline great circle

southern hemisphere

great circle rumbline

Mercator projection; scale = scale x or ÷ cosine ∆ latitude ( x from equator / ÷ to equator) simple conic / Lamberts projection (chart) convergency = ∆ longitude x sine latitude (or parallel of origin / constant of the cone) Polar stereographic (chart) convergency = ∆ longitude

east north south

east

(grid navigation) convergence = ∆ longitude from datum meridian (grid navigation) grivation = variation + convergence

glidepath ⋅ height =

glidepath ⋅ angle × 60

distance (ft) ≈ (300 ft/nm)

rate of descent (ft/min) ≈ GS (NM) x 5 (at 3° glide slope)

glide path in ° =

...% 100

x 60

mach ⋅ no. =

TAS LSS

[273°K = 0°C]

LSS ≡ 38,94 T (° K )

time to

PNR / PSR ⋅ (radius ⋅ of ⋅ action) = CP = D× H (O + H )

E×H (O + H )

/ E= safe endurance, H=GS home, O=GS out.

distance to

/ D=distance between airfields

point of equal time, moving into the wind.

ISA

15°C / 1013,25 mb / 1225 Gr/M3 = International Standard Atmosphere

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1,98 °C/1000ft lapse rate above MSL up to tropopause of 36000ft; remains constant at -56,5°C up to 66000ft then increases by 0,3 °C /1000ft up to 105000ft. VOR’s variation at station / NDB’s variation at aircraft. relative bearing + true heading = true bearing QDR + var. = QTE (QDR = magnetic from station / QTE = true from station) QDM ± 180° = QDR (radial) / QDM = ’’bearings on the RMI’’

NDB’s

plotting more than 2° longitudinal difference, convergency should be taken into account. from magnetic to true to plot is algebraic sum, from true (plotline) to QDM/QDR is algebraic sum (VARIATION).

C + Dev. = M + Var. = T

NDB bearing

move aircraft meridian to NDB and take aircraft position variation.

relative ⋅ height ( ft ) range( NM ) = 9,4 depression ⋅ angle

ATPL formulas – Meteorology

DALR = 3 °C/1000ft SALR = 1,8 °C/1000ft in temperate climates (not constant) S.L - 1013mb – 27 ft/mb // 18000 ft – 500mb – 48 ft/mb...