Atom and Nucleus

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The Atom and the Nucleus – Test Review
Energy Levels: electrons spin around the nucleus in distinct patterns. The further the orbit from the nucleus the more energy level present. Electrons tend to get attracted to the nucleus because of electrostatic force which makes them repell one another.

Electron Shell Diagram: grouping of electrons surrounding the nucleus of an atom. The chemical properties of an atom is defined by it’s outershell 2 8 8 18 18 32 32

Valence Orbital: outmost energy level
Valence Electrons: electrons in the outermost orbital ( determine the chemical bonding properties of different elements which carbon doesn’t ionize.)

3 types of bonding: 1. Ionic Bonds: Metal and Non Metal
2. Covalent Bonds: Non Metal and Non Metal 3. Metallic Bonds: Metal and Metal

How do we know when chemical reactions occur:
1.Change of Temperature ( it can either be endothermic ( absorbs in heat ) or exothermic( releases heat out) ) 2.Precipitate ( the substance becomes a solid )
3.Indicators: which change colors in the presence of something 4.Gas released: bubbling off
5.Reactants ( in solution) “ disappear” and can’t see them anymore THE LARGER THE ELEMENT THE MORE IT REACTS IN A SOLUTION

Atomic emission spectroscopy (AES) is a method of chemical analysis that uses the intensity of light emitted from a flame, plasma, arc, or spark at a particular wavelength to determine the quantity of anelement in a sample. The wavelength of the atomic spectral line gives the identity of the element while the intensity of the emitted light is proportional to the number of atoms of the element.

Periodic Table:
Set up, downwards called group of family and across period. They are organized b increasing atomic number ( number of protons) and by their similarity in chemical properties. 1.Alkali Metals
2.Alkaline Earth Metals
3-12 Transition Metals
13. Boron family...
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