Athens made amazing contributions to government and western-culture. From the 7th to the 5th centuries B.C., Athens took many steps to a more democratic government, such as laws and jury duty. Citizenship was still denied to women, aliens, and slaves, and punishments for crimes remained severe, but commoners were allowed to vote which started a direct democracy.
Sparta placed its emphasis on military prowess and aristocratic control of the government. It made few lasting contributions to western civilization. Sparta was most famous for its powerful military along with their loyal soldiers. Other Greek city states turned to Sparta to help them in the wars against Athens such as the First Peloponnesian War. The disunity of the Greek city-states led to the eventual takeover by Philip of Macedonia. After he was assassinated his Alexander the Great replaced him.
Under military and civic leadership of Pericles, Athens was most proud of their democratic philosophies and artistic creativity. Athens shrived in their artistic abilities also shown in their architecture at the time. Also Athens became known for having many talented playwrights, some being wrote about tragedies. Though in Sparta most of their achievements of remembrance was their military focuses. The boys that were born without illness were sent out for training to be a hoplite at the age of seven for about five years; they studied poetry and music until they were 18 then sent out to be something similar to a navy seal. If they were able to survive all battles by the age of 30 they were let free.