1. What prominent northern hemisphere star was the first to have its spectrum photographed?
2. An interstellar cloud of gas known as an H-II region is mainly composed of what?
3. What celestial object is known as the morning star or the evening star depending on when it is seen in the sky?
4. Which planet of the Solar System is accompanied by two moons named for the Greek gods of fear and terror?
5. On what kind of diagram are stars plotted according to their surface temperature and luminosity?
6. A common problem with refracting telescopes is a fringe of false color around the image, caused by the inability of a large lens to refract all colors of the spectrum to a common focus. This is known as ______.
7. For a body in orbit around the Sun, the point in its orbit which is furthest from the Sun is called __________.
8. The first constellation in the Zodiac is _______.
9. The brightest star in the constellation Taurus the Bull is the red giant Alpha Tauri, better known as ______.
10. A solar eclipse isn't always total. If the Moon is far enough from the Earth, its umbra fails to completely obscure the Sun, so that a ring of sunlight appears around the Moon. This is a called an ______.
11. The brightness of a star as it is seen from Earth is measured on a logarithmic scale, and known as its _______.
12. Right next to Pegasus is this constellation named after a mythical princess who was rescued by Perseus. Within its boundaries is the nearest spiral galaxy to the Milky Way. What is it?
13. Aristarchus of Samos in 280 BCE was one of the earliest philosophers to suggest which model of the solar system?
14. A black hole is always surrounded by an ___________.
15. The Pinwheel Galaxy, a spiral galaxy located in the constellation Ursa Major, is also known as M101. What does the "M" stand for?
16. What is the name for the point when an object in orbit around the Earth comes its closest to the Earth?
17. When 3 celestial bodies within the same gravitational system align to form a straight line, what is it called?
18. What is the maximum mass of a white dwarf in solar masses?
19. An astronomical unit is the distance between...?
20. What state of matter is our Sun mainly consisted of?
1.) Answer: Vega
American astronomer Henry Draper photographed Vega's spectrum in 1872. The images he took of Vega and other stars would lay the foundations for his "Henry Draper Catalogue of Stellar Spectra". 2.) Answer: Ionized hydrogen
Ionized hydrogen is also referred to as H-II and these gas clouds are often found in the spiral arms of galaxies. Star formation is common in H-II regions with the Eagle Nebula in the constellation Serpens being a prime example. 3.) Answer: Venus
Venus is the brightest object in the sky after the sun and the moon and can best be seen at dawn before the sun rises or in the twilight after sunset in the evening. The planet is almost the Earth's twin in size but supports an inhospitable carbon dioxide rich atmosphere. 4.) Answer: Mars
Phobos and Deimos are the sons of the Greek god of war Ares and personify fear and terror. It is only fitting that the two moons of Mars (the Roman name for Ares) were named for these two deities. Both moons are likely asteroids captured by Mars' gravitational field and are only 27km (Phobos) and 15km (Deimos) in diameter. 5.) Answer: Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram
Ejnar Hertzsprung and Henry Russell independently devised a diagram on which stars can be plotted according to their surface temperature and luminosity. The distribution of stars into groups such as giant stars, main sequence stars and white dwarfs is readily evident on an HR Diagram. 6.) Answer: aberration
This was one of the reasons Isaac Newton invented the reflecting telescope, which uses a mirror instead of lenses. 7.) Answer: aphelion
The opposite, the point at which it is closest...
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