# Assignmenys

Topics: Logic, Reasoning, Deductive reasoning Pages: 6 (1664 words) Published: May 17, 2013

The Use Of Logic

Logic

Logic (from the Greek λογική, logikē) has two senses; it is the study of modes of reasoning (those which are valid, and those which are fallacious) as well as the use of valid reasoning. In the latter sense, logic is used in most intellectual activities, including philosophy and science, but in the first sense, it is primarily studied in the disciplines of philosophy, mathematics, semantics, and computer science. It examines general forms that arguments may take. In mathematics, it is the study of valid inferences within some formal language. Logic is also studied in argumentation theory. Logic was studied in several ancient civilizations, including India, China, , Persia and Greece. In the West, logic was established as a formal discipline by Aristotle, who gave it a fundamental place in philosophy. The study of logic was part of the classical trivium, which also included grammar and rhetoric. In the East, logic was developed by Buddhists and Jainists. Logic is often divided into three parts, inductive reasoning, abductive reasoning, and deductive reasoning.

The study of logic

The concept of logical form is central to logic, it being held that the validity of an argument is determined by its logical form, not by its content. Traditional Aristotelian syllogistic logic and modern symbolic logic are examples of formal logics. • Informal logic is the study of natural language arguments. The study of fallacies is an especially important branch of informal logic. The dialogues of Plato are good examples of informal logic. • Formal logic is the study of inference with purely formal content. An inference possesses a purely formal content if it can be expressed as a particular application of a wholly abstract rule, that is, a rule that is not about any particular thing or property. The works of Aristotle contain the earliest known formal study of logic. Modern formal logic follows and expands on Aristotle. In many definitions of logic, logical inference and inference with purely formal content are the same. This does not render the notion of informal logic vacuous, because no formal logic captures all of the nuance of natural language. • Symbolic logic is the study of symbolic abstractions that capture the formal features of logical inference. Symbolic logic is often divided into two branches: propositional logic and predicate logic. • Mathematical logic is an extension of symbolic logic into other areas, in particular to the study of model theory, proof theory, set theory, and recursion theory.

Custom rules or algorithms that handle the exchange of information between a database and user interface. Business logic essentially consists of business rules, which are policies that govern various aspects of a business, and workflows, which are sequences of steps that specify in detail the flow of information or data. Also known as business rules or domain logic.

The algorithms involved in business logic perform behind-the-scenes data processing that is invisible to the user, but is critical to keeping things running smoothly in today's economy.

For example, a credit card issuer's business logic may specify that out-of-state credit card transactions above a certain limit, say \$500, be flagged as suspicious, and the issuer contacted as soon as possible to confirm the authenticity of the transaction. Given that millions of credit card transactions are conducted every single day, business logic enables such transactions to be checked and processed in an efficient and timely manner.

How to Use Logic

Often, when two people are arguing, one will say to the other, "You are simply being illogical!" That accusation is typically no more than another way of saying, "You're not agreeing with me so you're wrong!" In truth, logic is a process of arriving at a conclusion....