Task A - Complete tables
Complete the following four tables showing the different stages of development against the different ages and identify how development is holistic by showing links to other developmental aspects.
1. Physical development
2. Intellectual development
3. Communication development
4. Social, emotional and behavioural development
(Ref 1.1, 1.2)
Theorists in Child development:-
Piaget – Cognitive Development - Observed his own children, plus others to develop his theories. His theory is broad and runs from birth to adolescence and includes concepts of language, scientific reasoning, moral development and memory. Piaget believed that children went through stages of cognitive development at fixed ages and believed in the importance of learning through action and exploration of their own environment through their senses and motor skills. That they need real objects and experiences to discover things for themselves. Vygotsky – Sociocultural Theory - Stresses the fundamental role of social interaction in the development of cognition. He believed strongly that community (interaction with others) plays a central role in the process of understanding and developing intellectual skills. Using language and communication children learn to think about their world and modify their actions accordingly. Bruner – Cognitive Theory - Emphasised the importance of adults in supporting children’s thinking and learning. He used the term ‘scaffolding’ to describe the adult’s support and that the adult supports the child’s learning until they are ready to stand alone. The adult support the child’s learning and development by providing learning experiences with a meaningful context, adapting tasks and learning activities, selecting appropriate materials for each child’s needs and abilities and encouraging children to make choices about what they want to do and when. Erikson – Psychosocial Theory – Believed that development occurs throughout life and emphasises the social and emotional aspects of growth. He states that personalities develop in response to their social environment and so do their social skills. Erikson’s theory includes eight stages, in which he believes that each stage must be resolved before you can ascend to the next stage. Each stage involves a conflict or crisis that requires a solution that is satisfying both personally and socially. Gardner – Multiple Intelligences Theory – Emphasises that there are different kinds of intelligences used by the human brain and that the intelligence is the result of heredity and experiences and how culture shapes human potential. Gardner claims that children learn and express themselves in many different ways and in this process they use several types of intelligence. Each intelligence functions separately, but are closely linked to each other. Bandura – Social Learning Theory - States that behaviour is learned from the environment that they live. Children observe the people around them behaving in various ways and then copies or models what they have seen. They pay attention and then imitate, whether or not the behaviour is appropriate. See attachment. Maslow - Hierarchy of Needs Theory - Explores how basic needs must be met before an individual can proceed to higher growth needs (develop and learn). This growth can be interrupted by life experiences, their background, health and the environment that they live, which mean that you can fluctuate between the hierarchies need/levels at different times in their life. See attachment.
|Table 1: Physical development | |Age range |Description of the stage |An example of how this impacts on another aspect of development | |0 - 3 years |Fast physical development...