CA: Conversation analysis
Adjacency pairs figured prominently in early conversation analytic writings (Schegloff & Sacks, 1973; Schegloff, 1968) and continue to receive attention due to their fundamental importance in structuring talk.
1. Conversation Analysis
Among a number approaches to the study of spoken language, conversation analysis has become most influential for its magnitudes in not only applied linguistics but also other areas. CA’s concern with interactional competence converges with sociolinguistic notions of communicative competence (Bachman, 1990, Canale & Swain, 1980, Hymes, 1972). Numa Markee-66. The primary focus of research in Conversation Analysis (CA) is talk rather than language. The word “conversation” may be misleading here as in its onset, CA mainly dealt with conversations (familiar predominant kind of talk in which tow or more participants freely alternate in speaking, which generally occurs outside specific instituitional settings like religious services, law courts, classrooms and the like (Levison, 1983, p.284))); since the late 1970s, CA practitioners have been increasingly concerned with institutional talk. Because of its expansion of domain, the term “talk-in-interaction” (full range of speech exchange systems both ordinarily or instituitionally) has been suggested to use instead of “conversation”. However, in this essay, I would like to use conversation for the purpose of … In the light of CA, talk-in-interaction is orderly and sequential which is manifested by adjacency pairs, pre-sequences and insertion sequences, turn-taking work, … CA seeks to find “how speakers overwhelmingly cooperate in an orderly taking of turns, and how these turns are sequenced into sets of actions, as adjacent pairs and more extended sequences.” (Gardner, 2005, p.202). To achieve these goals, CA borrows from ethnomethodology three basic themes: accountability (social activities are orderly, observable,...