In this assignment the author will explain the contribution of complementary psychological theories to the understanding of two specific behaviours, Explain the contribution of contrasting psychological theories to the understanding of two specific behaviours and assess the contribution of complementary and contrasting psychological theories to the understanding of two specific behaviours.
In this part of the assignment the author will explain the contribution of complementary psychological theories to the understanding of two specific behaviours The two specific behaviours the author has chosen are aggression and addiction. The biological theory on addiction is this theory believes that there are genetic build ups in a person that causes them to react different to addiction, this could mean someone has more of an addictive personality compared to another person. They believe the genetic makeup impact the processing of such chemicals in an individual so they either become addicted easily or not. They believe there is a trigger that in combination with psychological and environmental help causes a person to become addicted easily. There is also evidence to support that addiction can be inherited, or that some individuals may be more likely to developing an addiction than others. Support for this theory comes from twin studies. In these studies, identical twins that were separated at birth (i.e., raised in completely different environments) were found to have similar levels of alcohol levels at different points in their lives. Even though both siblings may have been raised in different alcohol-free homes, they were just as likely to develop alcoholism. Studies have shown that adopted children have rates of alcoholism closer to those of their natural parents than to those of their adoptive parents‘one study found that 30–40 percent of natural children of alcoholics become alcoholics themselves, as opposed to a rate of 10 percent for the general population (Kolata, 1987). Some experts conclude that the rate of heritability of alcoholism—the chance of inheriting the disorder—is “similar to that expected for diabetes or peptic ulcer disease” (Schuckit, 1984, p. 62). Now that the entire human DNA sequence has been “decoded,” it is entirely possible that during the coming decade scientists will discover a genetic link with alcoholism’ (highered.mcgraw-hill.com/sites/dl/free/.../Goode7_Sample_ch03.pdf date accessed 18/04/13 time 12.35pm) This extract from the website shown is proof that the biological theory was correct or could be classed as being correct. It also shows that there could be a genetic link towards addiction in individuals however this study mainly focuses on alcoholism but it is a study that shows an addiction being passed on through genetics. Aggression is a form of emotion also known as anger, however aggressive behaviour is more violent that anger. An aggressive person may show aggressive behaviour through sharp tones in their voice or by abusing someone. Social Learning Theorists, such as Bandura (1965), claim that aggressive behaviour is learned through observing and imitating aggressive models. Aggressive behaviour is strengthened and maintained if it has a desirable outcome (reinforcement). Bandura's series of Bobo doll experiments revealed a number of factors that determine whether observed aggressive behaviour is imitated. Bandura proved this when he conducted an experiment where he had four groups of children, one group of children witnessed the bobo doll being abused by a role model, the second group of children witnessed a violent cartoon, the third group of children witnessed a violent film and the last group of children witnessed no violence at all. When left to do what the children desired the children that had witnessed a form of violence then went on to abuse the bobo doll, the children that had witnessed no violence at all began to play with the doll. The deindividuation complements the...
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