I. Chapter 6: SEMANTICS: The study of meaning and denotation EXERCISE 8 (page 224)
a. A second is part of a minute
A minute is part of an hour
An hour is part of a day
* A second is a part of an hour, and it is also a part of a day. It is a transitive relation because a minute, an hour and a day express the same thing which is Time. b. The toenail is part of the toe
The toe is part of the foot.
The foot is part of the leg
* The toenail is part of the leg. It is also a transitive relation because leg, foot, toe and even toenail are parts of body. c. Henry’s toe is part of Henry
Henry is part of the 23rd Battalion
But Henry’s toe is not part of the 23rd Battalion.
* It is not a transitive relation because Henry’s toe is only a part of his body, it cannot represent as Henry as the whole.
II. Chapter 9: PRAGMATICS: The study of language use and communication EXERCISE 7 (page 250)
The sentence I promise I will call the police if you don’t quiet down is not literally and directly used to promise nor warn. According to the theories of Bach and Harnish 1979, Recanati 1987, this sentence is not directly used to promise but rather are directly used to do what declarative sentences normally do – declare or state. It is only indirectly used to promise and warn. The sentence I promise I will call the police if you don’t quiet down is used directly to state or declare that the speaker is promising, and indirectly it is used to promise that the speaker will call the police if someone doesn’t quiet down and warn that the speaker will call the police if someone doesn’t quiet down. In my opinion, this sentence tends to be used as a warn more than a promise. EXERCISE 10 (page 10)
a. A rolling stone gathers no moss
Meaning: This proverb refers to a person who does not settle down is not attached to anything or anyone. If a person never stays in one place, he or she never "gathers" or gets attached...