Assignment 02

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 EDPHOD 8

TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE
1. EVALUATION AND PLANNING 2
1.1.The effects of a traumatic experience 2
1.2. Observation of effects 3
1.2.1. Effects of a poor stepparent relationship  and/or signs of abuse  1.2.2. Possible signs of racism 3
1.3. Possible effects of Maslow's hierarchy of needs on James's behaviour 4 2. COUNSELLING FOR JAMES 5
2.1. Counselling and support for learning problems 5
2.2. Psychological development, contribution of stage to behaviour and 6 developmental goal 2.3. Parent involvement/parent counselling 7
2.4. Guidelines for an individual assistance programme 7  
1. EVALUATION AND PLANNING
1.1.The effects of a traumatic experience
 
During trauma, normal functioning disintegrates in people. When a person perceives a threat, the initial stages of a complex, total-body response will begin. The brain orchestrates, directs, and controls this response. The more threatened an individual feels, the further their brain and body will be shifted along an arousal continuum in an attempt to ensure appropriate mental and physical responses to the challenges of the threat. The cognitive (thinking), emotional, and behavioural functioning of the individual will all reflect this shift along the arousal continuum. During the traumatic event, all aspects of the individual's functioning change, including feeling, thinking, and behaving. For instance, someone under direct assault abandons thoughts of the future or abstract plans for survival. At that exact moment, all of the victim's thinking, behaving, and feeling is being directed by more primitive parts of the brain. The arousal continuum is characterized by many physiological changes. Under threat, sympathetic nervous system activity increases in a gradual fashion. Heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration a re altered during the arousal response. Glucose stored in muscle is released to prepare the large skeletal muscles of your arms and legs for either a fight or a flight. These changes in the central nervous system cause hyper vigilance; under threat, the child tunes out all non-critical information. These actions prepare the child to do battle with or run away from the potential threat. During the hyper arousal process, many physiological systems required for survival are activated (e.g., stress response hormones such as cortisol and adrenaline). The many physiological changes during hyper arousal will influence the way a person thinks, feels, and acts. Senior phase/FET learners has vulnerable psyches. Adolescence is a time of change and testing out as teens move toward independence. This stage of development is accompanied by an increase in impulsivity. They do not see the connection between their actions and consequences. The transition through these years can be rough and stressful at times as adolescents are most vulnerable to social and psychological pressures. By adolescence, boys depression can go unrecognized and/or expressed through anger and violence. Children have different reactions towards divorce. Many react with shock, anger or despair and show grief, loss or emptiness and restlessness. These children, especially adolescences, are likely to have a lower self-esteem and self-image, have more interpersonal difficulties, are encompassed by guilt feelings and social embarrassment because of what happened to their family. They start to regress, withdraw and become aggressive or depressed. Compared to children of intact families, many children of recently divorced families are reported to demonstrate less social competence, more behavioural problems, more psychological distress and more learning deficits. Some children harbour the fantasy that their parents will be reunited in the future. Such children show animosity toward a parent's real or potential new mate because they are forced to recognize that no reconciliation is taking place. Teens commonly feel that their parents¶ divorce is their own fault. They often feel they could have...
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