The Status of Assessment of Children with Special Needs in the Philippines A Reflection Paper
Presented by GOTIZA, Adai Liyah M. MA Ed Special Education 11194820
Presented to Dr. W. Sison
9 February 2013
The Status of Assessment of Children with Special Needs in the Philippines I. Assessment Processess Involved in Assessment a. tests b. measurement c. evaluation II. Assessment of Children with Disabilities in America History of Assessment Purposes of Assessment in Education a. regular education b. special education Process of Educational Assessment III. Assessment of Children with Disabilities in the Philippines Policies and Guidelines of Special Education Process of Educational Assessment Trends and Issues in Assessment
The Status of Assessment of Children with Special Needs in the Philippines Assessment is an indispensable process in the educational system, especially in educating children with disabilities. It is a process of obtaining information for decisions about students, curriculum and programs, decisions and on educational the of policies. of Moreover, goals this involves psychological assessment of children with relevance to making appropriateness instructional at and objectives, assigning management counselling. This process involves the use of tests, measurement, and evaluation. The instruments for the systematic procedure are called tests. These are used for observing and describing one or more characteristic of children using a numerical scale or classification scheme. Paper-and-pencil tests, teacher-made tests, standardized tests are among the other instruments used. The scores earned in correctly answered items provide the teacher the quantitative and objective information as to how much a student has learned. The procedure for assigning number or score to a specified attribute or characteristics is called measurement. Through this, the order of people in the group being measured is maintained. This measurement provides the value judgement of the student’s score or performance. This process of evaluation serves as the basis for decisions about the course of action to be followed. This gives an objective picture of the status of the child which could be done through either formative or summative evaluation. Formative evaluative involves a progressive monitoring on the quality of learning a child is gaining. Whereas summative teaching strategies,
appropriate classification, placement opportunities and guidance and
evaluation is done after a period of time which determines the quality or worth of materials a student has gained. Assessment encompasses testing, measurement, and evaluation; it is broader than all the process. However, measurement, in some cases, may not be utilized due to lack of tools. This may lead to subjectivity. Thus, it would require a deep knowledge of the qualitative and quantitative attributes to arrive at a sound assessment. Assessment in special education dated way back the Medieval Times when people with non-purposive behaviour are considered mentally-ill and were placed in asylum. Maria Montessori, an Italian doctor, once worked with people with this distress. She clarified that many of the cases in the asylum do not possess medical problems but pedagogical problems. Thus, they will benefit from instructional intervention. This was followed by the works of Itard and Seguine who designed a training program to improve visual, auditory and tactile senses. Their objective was to refine the senses. However, their study did not go on but was continued by Samuel Howe and Edward Seguine who then started an institution for children with mental retardation. In 1838, Esquirol wrote a book on mental deficiency who described the disability in a varying continuum. He explained further that the use of language is a dependable criterion to determine the individual’s level of...