Assessment CYPOP30: Support the creativity of children and young people and understand how creativity promotes well being for children and young people 1.1
Explain evidence, approaches and theories about the benefits of creativity for the well-being of children and young people. B.F.Skinner;
B.F. Skinner, born on March 20th 1904, was an American behavioural psychologist who carried who carried out many experiments based on how behaviour is shaped and that all humans will regurgitate the things they enjoy doing and avoid those they dislike. He understood that creative people will be rewarded positively in order for that person to take an interest in that particular activity and develop further. He based his theories on self-observation, causing him to support behaviourism, believing that people should be controlled through systematic rewards. Skinner discovered and advanced the “Rate of response” as a dependant variable psychological research. He was criticised as many scientists are, but was called both “evil and hateful” yet also “warm and enthusiastic.” Skinner believed that all behaviour is taught and shaped, through the use of punishment and rewards. He disagreed that it was useful to create theories about mental states that were unable to be observed and were unscientific. He believed positive reinforcement, for example praise, strengthens behaviour and that negative reinforcement, for example punishment or the removal of something that will cause the bad behaviour to stop, or decrease the possibility of it happening again. Skinner experimented with animals such as rats and pigeons, giving them rewards when they pressed a lever which was the desired behaviour (positive reinforcement) and giving them an electric shock every time they went to an undesired area of the maze, which would cause the animal to avoid that area (negative reinforcement). Positive reinforcement must not be confused with bribery or punishment, for example telling a child they will receive their dessert only if they eat all of their lunch is bribery. Whereas telling a child to eat all their dinner because there is a lovely dessert coming after, is positive reinforcement. The child will recognise that they have been given a choice so may decide that they do not want dessert anyway, leaving their dinner, resulting in the adult being annoyed. With bribery, the child learns that the point of the behaviour is to please the adult and gain the reward (in this case being dessert), not to ensure they eat all of their dinner, so they can grow and eat enough vitamins and minerals to keep them healthy. Positive and negative reinforcement strengthens behaviour and increases behaviour, but punishment has the effect of weakening behaviour or decreasing the future probability of a behaviour’s occurrence. Skinner believed that behaviour is maintained through similar or the same consequences, which influenced many other scientists to explain social behaviour. Within my nursery setting we still use Skinner’s theory today by including negative and positive reinforcement, for example I and my colleagues use stickers as a reward for doing something well or behaving appropriately. We recognise that if a child carries out a task well or is being kind this will mean they will receive a reward, such as a sticker or biscuit or praise. I will also use negative reinforcement in the nursery, for example if a child misbehaves, such as hitting another child or is leaving another child out then I would place the child on time-out, so they can reflect on what they have done. Children will recognise that when they carry out a task well they will be rewarded so are more likely to want to do that task again. Skinner explained there should be a definite line drawn between bribery and positive reinforcement and that no child should be bribed into doing something, for example in my setting I must not tell a child that they can go to play outside after they tidy up, because a child is...
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