Assess the View That Factors and Processes Within the School Are the Main Cause of Differences in Educational Achievement of Different Social Groups.

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A social group is a collection of people who interact with each other and share similar characteristics and a sense of unity. Internationalists approach believes that the difference in educational achievement is based on the labelling theory. In particular, teacher-pupil relationship. Labelling theory suggests that teacher’s judge pupils based on their characteristics that relate to class, gender and ethnicity rather than their intelligence or ability. The label placed on an individual can have an effect on their performance as it leads to self-fulfilling prophecy (SFP) whereby they act upon the label. Gillborn found that afro-Caribbean pupils were more likely to be given detention than any other pupils as the teachers misinterpreted the dress and manner of speech as representing a challenge to their authority. In perceiving their treatment to be unfair, the pupils responded in accordance to their labels. (SFP) This is also supported by Rosenthal and Jacobsen’s study whereby two researchers reported pupils ‘results’ in intelligence tests to their teacher. The names of the ‘high flyers’ were in fact picked at random and bore no relation to any test results. However, the pupils’ real performance by the end of the school year communicated to their ‘fake’ test success. It was found that teachers also perceived such pupils as happier, better adjusted and more interesting than the rest. Those pupils who were not named as high flyers but improved in performance against their expectation were described as showing ‘undesirable’ behaviour. Streaming (splitting pupils into several different hierarchy groups which would stay together for all lessons) and setting (putting pupils of similar ability together for certain lessons) also has an effect on achievement of an individuals. Ball found that teachers had higher expectations of those children in the top sets or streams and so they ‘pushed’ these children more. In contrast Ball found those children placed in the lower...
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