This chapter introduces the background of the problem, objective of the study, statement of the problem, research questions and significant of the study. 1.0 Background of the Studies
According to World bank, NGO’s are defined as private organizations that pursue activities to relieves suffering, promote the interest of the poor, protect the environment, provides basic social services, or undertake community developments( World Bank criteria defining NGO,2007). Historically, Non-Governmental Organization at international level have a history dating back to at least 1839.It have been estimated that by 1914 there were 1098 NGO’s. The international Ngo’s were important in the anti slavery movement and the movement of women suffrage, and reached peak at the time of world disarmament conference. Non Governmental Organization only comes into popular use with the establishment of United Nation Organization in 1994 with the provisions in the article 71 of chapter 10 of the United Nations chapter for consultative role of organizations which are neither government nor member state. (Davis, 2007). The vital role of NGOs in sustainable development was recognized in the chapter 27 of agenda 21 in the UN conference, In the 20th century during the establishment of globalization the importance of NGO’s was recognized, where many problems could not be solved within a nation, Hence NGO’s have developed to emphasize Humanitarian issues, development aids and sustainable development (Howell, 2000). According to World Bank, There two purposes of NGO are operational and advocacy .Operational is the primary purpose of NGO’s .Primary purpose of NGO’s to design the implementation of development related projects, Example Community Based Organization. The primary purpose of Advocacy NGO’s is to defend or promote a specific cause. As opposed to operational project management, these organizations typically try to raise awareness, acceptance and knowledge by lobbying press work and activist event (Wikipedia, 2011). Non Government Organization has been an engine towards improving the living standard of the people, since not all the problem could be solved within the nation tracing back the Tanzanian history, since 1961, Tanzania has been at war against three development enemies such as ignorance, poverty and diseases. However in 1996 the overall policy has included special forms of poverty reduction in additions to measures to sustain sound macro economic levels (URT, 2007). The progress of minimizing three enemies is mixed, towards achieving development of the community. Indicators in measuring development are range, others show sign of improvement, and others remain the same while others get worse. Many disparities still exist such as gap between the poor and rich, the bridge between urban and rural, female and male, able and disabled. It is also clear that children, youth, and the elderly and people with disabilities have their own problem especially poverty that all problems are felt at different extent in different parts of the country, Hence Low living standard is inevitable (chambers, 1983). One of the indicators of the standard of living is health. In 1990, the health situation in Tanzania was mixed. Diseases like tuberculosis among elderly, youth, youth and children increased, The availability of drugs were scarce, many people in rural areas were have to travel to distance for the health facilities and get many drugs were very expensive for the poor to afford. For stance 90% of the children’s’ deaths in local communities and some urban areas are due to preventable causes (National Strategy of Growth and Reduction of Poverty, 2005). Education is also among the major aspect of living standard of the community. Several tactics, programs, have been enrolled in the improvement of education situation in Tanzania. Despite the improvement of enrollment in education considerably in the last five years in 2004, as the results of primary...
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