Aspect of Development

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1.1 Explain the sequence & rate of each aspect of development e.g. physical, communication, intellectual/cognitive, social, emotional, behavioural & moral, from birth to 19 yrs

Physical development: this refers to the body increasing in skill and performance and includes:
gross motor development using large muscles, for example legs and arms
fine motor development (precise use of muscles), for example hands and fingersAg
e Physical development (gross and fine motor)
Birth to 4 weeks Lies on back with head to one side
Head lags when pulled up to sit
Uses reflexes, sucking, stepping, grasping
1 month Head control still unsteady
Grasps objects when they touch the palm of the hand
Head and eyes move together
3 months Kicks legs and waves arms
Can lift head and turn when on front
Watches movements of own hands, plays with own hands
Holds rattle for a few seconds if placed in hand
4 months Uses arms for support when lying on stomach
Turns from back to side
Holds on to and shakes small items
6 months Sits with support
Rolls over
Pushes head, neck and chest off floor with arms when on front Uses whole hand to grasp, passes toy from one hand to another 9 months Sits alone without support
Reaches out for toys when sitting
May crawl or shuffle
Uses index and middle fingers with thumb in pincer grip to pick up small items Will take and hold a small brick in each hand
Lifts block but can only release by dropping
1 year Stands alone and starts to walk holding on
Becomes mobile through crawling or shuffling
Enjoys self-feeding and holds cup with help
Starting to show hand preference
Clicks two cubes together
Puts cubes in box when shown
18 months Can walk alone
Pushes and pulls toys when walking
Can walk downstairs with hand held
Tries to kick a ball, rolls and throws ball
Squats to pick up objects from the floor
Assists with dressing and undressing
Can use a spoon
Uses a delicate pincer grasp for tiny objects
Holds a crayon in primitive tripod grasp and scribbles
Turns handles
Pulls off shoes (gross and fine motor)
2 years Walks up and down stairs with both feet on one step. Climbs on furniture Builds a tower of six bricks
Uses a spoon for self-feeding
Puts shoes on
Draws circles and dots
Starts to use preferred hand
3 years Stands and walks on tiptoe
Can kick a ball confidently
Jumps from low steps
Pedals a tricycle
Turns single pages in a book
Can draw a face
Builds bridges with blocks when shown
Undoes buttons
Threads large beads
4 years Can aim and throw and catch a large ball
Walks backwards and on a line
Runs and hops
Builds a large tower
Can brush own teeth
Cuts round an object with scissors and copies a square
Buttons and unbuttons clothes
Can do a 12-piece jigsaw
5 years Skips
Runs quickly
Easily dresses and undresses
Hits a ball with a bat
Draws a person with a head, body and legs, and a house
Can do a 20-piece jigsaw
Forms letters and writes own name
Accurately uses scissors
6–7 years Enjoys hopping, bike riding, roller blading and skating Balances on a wall or beam
Has finer manipulation of building bricks, jigsaws, etc
Can sew simple stitches
Ties and unties laces
Builds intricate models
Controls pencil in a small area and does detailed drawing
8–12 years Improves physical skills that have already developed Puberty starts around 10 for girls with a growth spurt and increase in body strength 13–19 years Brains developing with increase in reaction times and co-ordination

For girls puberty is complete at about 14 and periods start
For boys puberty is 13–16 and they will be stronger than girls

Communication and speech development: this is learning to
communicate with friends, family and all others.
However, it is important to realise that all the areas of development link together. Just stop and think about the changes that take place in the developing child.

Age Language and communication skills
Birth to 4 weeks Cries when basic needs...
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