Outcome 2 Know about common types of medication and their use
1. describe common types of medication including their effects and potential side effects
Below are outlined 3 types of common medications.
Analgesics: i.e. Codeine, used for pain relief, side effects can be light-headedness, dizziness, nausea, vomiting, shortness of breath, and sedation. Codeine can also cause allergic reactions, symptoms of which include constipation, abdominal pain, rash and itching.
Antibiotics: i.e. Amoxicillin, a penicillin based antibiotic which fights bacteria in your body. It can only be taken if you are not allergic to Penicillin and do not have asthma, liver or kidney disease, or a history of diarrhoea caused by antibiotics. It is used to treat many different types of infections, such as ear infections, bladder infections, pneumonia, and salmonella however it can cause side effects including sores inside your mouth, fever, swollen glands, joint pain, muscle weakness, severe blistering, peeling, and red skin rash, yellowed skin, yellowing of the eyes, dark colored urine, confusion or weakness, easy bruising, and vaginal itching.
Anti-hypertensive: i.e. Lisonopril used for lowering blood pressure, it is also effective in the treatment of congestive heart failure, and to improve survival after a heart attack. Not to be used by people with liver or kidney disease, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis. Side effects can include feeling faint, restricted urination, stomach swelling, and flu like symptoms, heart palpitations, chest pains, skin rash, depressed mood, vomiting and diarrhoea.
2. identify medication which demands the measurement of specific physiological Measurements
Insulin requires physiological measurement to determine the fluctuating amount required to balance what the body can produce naturally. This can be counted by monitoring the level of sugars in the blood and whether you need additional insulin to control this in diabetics.
3. describe the common adverse reactions to medication, how each can be recognised and the appropriate action(s) required
Many medications have common side effects such as vomiting, dizziness and rashes, however it is always important to familiarise your self with the specific side effects of the drug in question. Packs always come with information leaflets therefore it is important to always read the side effects of the medication. If you experience any of the side effects to the point of severity such as extreme vomiting over a sustained period, blacking out, or swelling or blistering where the skin is becoming broken then you are having an adverse reaction. If you are experiencing adverse side effects you should always seek medical advice.
4. explain the different routes of medicine administration.
There are various routes of administration available, each of which has advantages and disadvantages which include:
Oral - The most common form as it is convenient and economic. Solid dose forms such as tablets and capsules have a high degree of stability in providing accurate dosage
Sublingual – A common route of administration when rapid absorption into the blood vessels is required such as glyceryl trinitrate which is used in the treatment of acute angina.
Rectal – It has disadvantages in terms of patient acceptability and unpredictable drug absorption, however it does have advantages in localised drug delivery into the large bowel especially for the delivery of rectal steroids for example.
Topical – This administration has advantages in the management of localised treatment. It is the most direct route such as the use of eye drops for glaucoma, steroid cream in the management of dermatitis, inhaled bronchodilators in the treatment of asthma, or the insertion of pessaries containing clotrimazole in the treatment of vaginal issues.
Intravenous – Allows...