Question 2: Has State Played a Leading Role in Upgrading Technologies in the Asia Pacific?
Several governments have played a leading role in upgrading technologies in the Asia Pacific. The government of Hong Kong has applied a different strategy than other countries Asia Pacific, which is called laissez-faire. The Government of Hong Kong has confidence in the free market economy. It indicates confidence in the doctrine of the free market. Hong Kong's approach was more passive and general than in other countries.
In South Korea, the government plays an active role in local technological development. The government developed and implemented a systematical national technology policy to upgrade technology.
The Korean government's science and technology strategy was aiming to strengthen the scientific and technological education, to set up the construction of scientific and technological infrastructure and to progress with the promotion of the acquisition of foreign technology.
The leadership of the state and the authoritarian regime they implemented have a significant impact on the rapid growth of Korea. Especially in the beginning of 1970s and 1980s, the state-led rapid growth in development strategy is remarkable. From the mid 1970’s, there is a symbiotic relationship between the Korean government and Chaebol’s. This situation has been observed in the success of Korea's electricity industry. On the other hand, the Korean Government also applied discipline to the companies. The big firms encouraged by the Korean government on some particular subjects such as R&D, export, development of new products. The government also provided other profitable work to keep the companies away from risky businesses and helped to diversify the production.
The government has worked to coordinate field of activities of the domestic and foreign private sector. The public sector undertook the activities which the private sector did not want to deal with. When the local initiatives has upgraded their skills, the government transferred these activities to them. Especially the state encourages the high technologic domestic investments, and supported the talented entrepreneurs who were interested in high-tech sectors such as electronics and computers.
The Korean government made systematic efforts to the scientists and engineers studying abroad to return back to their countries and the reverse brain drain became successful. In this process, this is one of the most striking features of creative imitations of corporate R & D activities. In 1970, when there used to be 1 corporate R&D center, in 1990 the number became 966 and in 1995 it increased to 2270. In 1970 the total R&D was 10.5 billion Won , after...