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EXPERIMENT NO. 5
LIPIDS

Sheena Grace Abainza (12-8116)
Agatha Abella (12-8046)
Danielle Quigao (12-8051)
Jessa Mae Ramos (12-8049)

February 15, 2013

CHEM42 (Biochemistry) Laboratory
ABSTRACT
This experiment was performed to enlighten the researcher about the different properties and characteristics of lipids including its solubility and its complexity with regards to its components. The test for solubility tagged along the aphorism “like dissolves like” since coconut oil was dissolved in chloroform, ether, and carbon tetrachloride. The emulsification of fats in coconut oil was also conducted and the only the dilute albumin solution showed a positive effect. The saponification reaction was also conducted which is the focal procedure in the production of soap. Cholesterol, a simple lipid, was also tested in different color reactions which yielded to a negative product. INTRODUCTION

Objectives:
1. To learn the different properties of lipids
2. To know observe the solubility of lipids in polar and nonpolar solvents 3. To know the reaction of coconut oil in litmus paper
4. To  form triglycerides from diverse fatty acids through saponification 5. To study the effects of complex lipids in color reactions

Lipids
Lipids are found to be water insoluble but they are found to be soluble in fat solvent. They are heterogeneous group of fatty acids.  They include fats, oils, waxes and other related substances.  They are oily or greasy substances.  Thus they are hydrophobic in nature. Proteins, polysaccharides, DNA and RNA are macromolecules.  Lipids are not generally classed as macromolecules, even though they share some features of macromolecules.  For example: lipids synthesized as linear polymers and they self assemble into larger structures.

 Lipids are compounds having the following characteristics:

• They are insoluble in water
• Solubility in one or more organic solvents, such as ether, chloroform, Benzene, Acetone which are generally called as fat "solvents". • Some relationship to the fatty acids as esters either actual or potential. • Possibility of utilization by living organisms.

Classification Of Lipids:

There is no single, internationally accepted system of classification for the lipids available.  The names of these compounds, however, do fall into certain categories as the component structures present are considered. Bloor's classification is generally adopted with a few modifications as follows:

Simple Lipids:
Simple lipids are esters of fatty acids with various alcohols. They contain mainly fatty acids and alcohols alone.  They are further divided into two classes namely, Neutral fats and waxes. a) Neutral fats:

They are triesters of fatty acids with glycerol. Triacyglycerol is an example for Neutral fats. b) Waxes:  
Waxes are esters of fatty acids with higher mono hydroxy aliphatic alcohols.  True waxes, cholesterol esters and vitamin  A and D esters are example for waxes.

Compound Lipids:
They are the esters of fatty acids containing groups, other than and in addition, to an alcohol and fatty acids. a) Phospholipids:
In addition to fatty acids and alcohol presence, they also contain phosphorous, nitrogenous bases and other substitution groups.  Lecithin and cephalins are examples for phospholipids.

b) Glycolipids:
Lipids containing carbohydrates are referred as glycolipids. They contain an special alcohol moiety called sphingosine or sphingol and nitrogenous base.  They do not have phosphorous. Gangliosides and cerebrosides are examples  of compounds lipids. c) Sulpholipids:

Lipids with sulfate groups are referred as sulpholipids.
d) Lipoproteins:
When lipids contain protein then they are known as lipoproteins. Example chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL and HDL.

Derived Lipids:
Derived lipids are lipids obtained upon hydrolysis of the simple...
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