Aryabhata - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Aryabhata

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Aryabhata (Sanskrit: आयभट listen; IAST: Āryabhaṭa) or Aryabhata I[1][2] (476–550 CE)[3][4] was the first in the line of great mathematician-astronomers from the classical age of Indian mathematics and Indian astronomy. His works include the Āryabhaṭīya (499 CE, when he was 23 years old)[5] and the Arya-siddhanta. The works of Aryabhata dealt with mainly mathematics and astronomy. He also worked on the approximation for pi.

Aryabhata

Contents

1 Biography 1.1 Name 1.1.1 Time and place of birth 1.2 Education 1.3 Other hypotheses 2 Works 2.1 Aryabhatiya 3 Mathematics 3.1 Place value system and zero 3.2 Approximation of π 3.3 Trigonometry 3.4 Indeterminate equations 3.5 Algebra 4 Astronomy 4.1 Motions of the solar system 4.2 Eclipses 4.3 Sidereal periods 4.4 Heliocentrism 5 Legacy 6 See also 7 References 8 External links

Statue of Aryabhata on the grounds of IUCAA, Pune. As there is no known information regarding his appearance, any image of Aryabhata originates from an artist's conception. Born Died Era Region Main interests Major works 476 CE prob. Ashmaka 550 CE Gupta era India Mathematics, Astronomy Āryabhaṭīya, Arya-siddhanta

Biography

Name

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Aryabhata - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

While there is a tendency to misspell his name as "Aryabhatta" by analogy with other names having the "bhatta" suffix, his name is properly spelled Aryabhata: every astronomical text spells his name thus,[6] including Brahmagupta's references to him "in more than a hundred places by name".[7] Furthermore, in most instances "Aryabhatta" does not fit the metre either.[6] Time and place of birth Aryabhata mentions in the Aryabhatiya that it was composed 3,630 years into the Kali Yuga, when he was 23 years old. This corresponds to 499 CE, and implies that he was born in 476.[4] Aryabhata's birthplace is uncertain, but it may have been in the area known in ancient texts as Ashmaka India which may have been Maharashtra or Dhaka.[6]

Education

It is fairly certain that, at some point, he went to Kusumapura for advanced studies and lived there for some time.[8] Both Hindu and Buddhist tradition, as well as Bhāskara I (CE 629), identify Kusumapura as Pāṭaliputra, modern Patna.[6] A verse mentions that Aryabhata was the head of an institution (kulapati) at Kusumapura, and, because the university of Nalanda was in Pataliputra at the time and had an astronomical observatory, it is speculated that Aryabhata might have been the head of the Nalanda university as well.[6] Aryabhata is also reputed to have set up an observatory at the Sun temple in Taregana, Bihar.[9]

Other hypotheses

Some archeological evidence suggests that Aryabhata could have originated from the present day Kodungallur which was the historical capital city of Thiruvanchikkulam of ancient Kerala.[10] For instance, one hypothesis was that aśmaka (Sanskrit for "stone") may be the region in Kerala that is now known as Koṭuṅṅallūr, based on the belief that it was earlier known as Koṭum-Kal-l-ūr ("city of hard stones"); however, old records show that the city was actually Koṭum-kol-ūr ("city of strict governance"). Similarly, the fact that several commentaries on the Aryabhatiya have come from Kerala were used to suggest that it was Aryabhata's main place of life and activity; however, many commentaries have come from outside Kerala. Aryabhata mentions "Lanka" on several occasions in the Aryabhatiya, but his "Lanka" is an abstraction, standing for a point on the equator at the same longitude as his Ujjayini.[11]

Works

Aryabhata is the author of several treatises on mathematics and astronomy, some of which are lost. His major work, Aryabhatiya, a compendium of mathematics and astronomy, was extensively referred to in the Indian mathematical literature and has survived to modern times. The mathematical...