Artificial Recharge of Ground Water

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CENTRAL GROUND WATER BOARD MINISTRY OF WATER RESOURCES

GUIDE ON ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE TO GROUND WATER

NEW DELHI MAY, 2000

GUIDE ON ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE TO GROUND WATER

CONTENTS

Page No.
1. INTRODUCTION 1-3

2.

PLANNING OF ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE PROJECTS

3-9

3.

ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE TECHNIQUES AND DESIGN

10 - 32

4.

MONITORING, MECHANISM FOR ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE PROJECTS

33 - 36

5.

CASE HISTORIES OF ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE IN INDIA

36 - 75

Annexure 1 --Format For Preparation of Artificial Recharge Project Annexure 2 --Planning Artificial Recharge Project -- Checklist Annexure 3 –General Guidelines for the evaluation of Ground Water Recharge Projects with special reference to Basaltic Terrain

GUIDE ON ARTIFICIAL RECHARGE TO GROUND WATER
1.0 INTRODUCTION

The artificial recharge to ground water aims at augmentation of ground water reservoir by modifying the natural movement of surface water utilizing suitable civil construction techniques. Artificial recharge techniques normally address to following issues (i) To enhance the sustainable yield in areas where over-development has depleted the aquifer. Conservation and storage of excess surface water for future requirements, since these requirements often changes within a season or a period. To improve the quality of existing ground water through dilution. To remove bacteriological and other impurities from sewage and waste water so that water is suitable for re-use.

(ii)

(iii) (iv)

The basic purpose of artificial recharge of ground water is to restore supplies from aquifers depleted due to excessive ground water development.

1.1 1.1.1

Concept of Augmenting Ground Water Reservoir Ground Water or Sub-Surface Reservoirs

The sub-surface reservoirs are very attractive and technically feasible alternatives for storing surplus monsoon run off. The sub-surface reservoirs can store substantial quantity of water. The sub-surface geological formations may be considered as "warehouse" for storing water that come from sources located on the land surface. Besides suitable lithological condition, other considerations for creating sub-surface storages are favourable geological structures and physiographic units, whose dimensions and shape will allow retention of substantial volume of water in porous and permeable formations. The sub-surface reservoirs, located in suitable hydrogeological situations, are environment friendly and economically viable proposition. The sub-surface storages have advantages of being free from the adverse effects like inundation of large surface area, loss of cultivable land, displacement of local population, substantial evaporation losses and sensitivity to earthquakes. No gigantic structures are needed to store water. The underground storage of water would also have beneficial influence on the existing ground water regime. The deeper water levels in many parts of the country, either of natural occurrence or due to excessive ground water development, may be substantially raised, resulting in reduction in lifting costs and energy saving. The quality of natural ground

water would substantially improve in brackish and saline areas. The conduit function of aquifers thereby reducing the cost intensive surface water conveyance system. The effluence resulting from such sub-surface storage at various surface intersection points in the form of spring line, or stream emergence, would enhance the river flows and improve the presently degraded ecosystem of riverine tracts, particularly in the outfall areas. The structures required for recharging ground water reservoirs are of small dimensions and cost effective, such as check dams, percolation tanks, surface spreading basins, pits, subsurface dykes etc.

1.1.2 Basic Requirement for Artificial Recharge Projects The basic requirements for recharging the ground water reservoir are: a) Availability of non-committed surplus monsoon run off in space and time. b)...
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