Artificial Intelligence

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Artificial Intelligence: Foundations of Autonomous Consciousness and the New World to Come Shawana Thomas
INF103: Computer Literacy
Prof. Troy Robinson
December 5, 2012

Table of Contents
Introduction …………………………………………………………………………………… 3 What is Artificial Intelligence? ……………………………………………………………….. 3 Defining Intelligence ………………………………………………………………………….. 4 A Glimmer of a Thought………………………………………………………………………. 5 The Beginning of a New Intelligence………………………………………………………….. 6 AI Applications of Today: Where Would You Find AI? ……………………………………... 7 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………………... 8 References……………………………………………………………………………………… 10

Artificial Intelligence: Foundations of Autonomous Consciousness and the New World to Come Introduction The concept of Artificial Intelligence or AI has been a topic of great controversy, not just historically, but is debated today and will be for many years to come. Artificial intelligence has changed society and its perspectives on intelligence and life since its introduction during the mid-1950’s and is predicted to make exponential advancements decades into the future by redefining the way scientist think in regard to consciousness and intelligence in objects considered once as merely machine. In this essay, I intend to illustrate various concepts in regard to the definition and historical events of Artificial Intelligence, including its correlations with applications in today’s society and significances in logic and philosophy. Society continues to marvel and benefit from AI and the various advancements made today. Nearly every aspect of today’s menial activity is affected by these astounding breakthroughs via the advancements of AI integrated into several applications and prolific manifestation in today’s devices. What is Artificial Intelligence?

Artificial Intelligence, subsequently referred to as AI, is a concept matriculated via computer science as the development of various programs meant to assimilate intelligent consciousness in that of machinery. It has been said that these studies and concepts were meant to “relate to the similar task of using computers to understand human intelligence;” however, AI does necessarily confine itself solely to methods that are characterized as behaviorally human. (McCarthy, 2007, para. 1) For example, a scientific calculator is a clear example of AI, meant to calculate mathematical computations, as opposed to a software program designed to play a game of chess, which is another example of Artificial intelligence designed to emulate that of human logic and ability. It has been said that, “the term ‘Artificial Intelligence’ is applied to a great many schools of thought: everything from the early studies in information theory and logic proving machines to the latest work in neural networks and Expert Systems, and it was predicted AI would be the glue that would bind together such diverse fields as psychology, linguistics, anthropology, neuroscience and philosophy, under the umbrella of cognitive science.” (Shanker, 1998, p.1) Nevertheless, in order to understand or determine how a machine acquires a sense aptitude or human acuity, one has to define the meaning of “intelligence,” and whether or not a machine can acquire or become so. Defining Intelligence

The definition of intelligence has been a topic of speculation by many scientist and lay people alike. How do you define or even measure something so incredibly esoteric and intangible as intelligence or intellectual capacity? Most dictionaries would say that intelligence is defined by the capacity to learn, understand and grasp that that is considered truth. John McCarthy, author of numerous intellectual essays such as: What is Artificial Intelligence and Concepts of Logical AI, states that, “Intelligence is the computational part of the ability to achieve goals in...
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