15th August 1947 is a red letter day in Indian History when India got freedom. The Constitution of the country was adopted on Nov. 26, 1949 and came into force on Jan 26, 1950. The Preamble of the Constitution outlines the social philosophy which should govern all our institutions including educational. Right to Education is one of the fundamental rights enshrined in the Constitution of India. The Constitution of India gives a few directions and suggestions for the development of education in the countries which are also called constitutional provisions. The following provisions have a great bearing on the functioning of the educational system in India: Article 28:
According to our Constitution article 28 provides freedom as to attendance at religious instruction or religious worship in educational institutions. Article 29:
This article provides equality of opportunity in educational institutions. Article 30:
It accepts the right of the minorities to establish and administrate educational institutions. Article 45:
According to this article "The state shall endeavour to provide within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of 14 years." We notice that the responsibility for universal elementary education lies with the Central Government, the State Governments, the Local Bodies and voluntary organisations. Article 46:
It provides for special care to the promotion of education and economic interests of the scheduled caste, scheduled tribes and the weaker sections of society. Article 337:
This provides for special provision with respect to educational grants for the benefit of Anglo-Indian community. Article 350A:
This article relates to facilities for instruction in mother tongue at primary stage. Article 350B:
It provides for a special offer for linguistic minorities.
This article relates to the development and promotion of the Hindi language. The seventh schedule of the Indian Constitution contains legislative powers under three lists viz. The Union List, the State List and the Concurrent List The Union List:
This list contains 97 subjects where the following entries are related to education: Entry 13:
To provide Educational and Cultural relations with foreign countries. Entry 62:
The institutions known at the commencement of the Constitution as National Library, The Indian Museum, the Imperial War Museum, the Victoria Memorial, and Indian War Memorial. Any other such institutions financed by the Government of India wholly or in part and declared by the Parliament by law to be an institution of national importance. Entry 63:
Institutions of national importance. The institution known at the commencement of this Constitution as the BHU, AMU and Delhi University etc. declared by Parliament by law to be an institution of national importance. Entry 64:
The institution of scientific and technical education financed by the Government of India wholly or in part and declared by law to be institutions of national importance like IITs and lIMs. Entry 65:
Union agencies and institutions for:
(i) Professional, vocational or technical training, including the training of police officers. (ii) The promotion of special studies or research.
(iii) Scientific or technical assistance in the investigation of detection of crime. Entry 66:
Coordination and determination of standards in the institution of higher education or research and scientific and technical institutions.
State list consists of 66 entries, out of which the following is the entry related to education: Entry 12:
According to this entry all libraries, museums and other similar institutions controlled or financed by the state, ancient and historical monuments and records other than those declared by or under law made by the Parliament to be of the national importance. Concurrent...