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Section 8
SEKSYON 8. Hindi dapat hadlangan ang karapatan ng mga taong-bayan kabilang ang mga naglilingkod sa publiko at pribadong sektor na magtatag ng mga asosasyon, mga unyon, o mga kapisanan sa mga layuning hindi lalabag sa batas. “The right of the people, including those employed in public and private sectors, to form unions, associations, or societies for purposes not contrary to law shall not be abridged.” Freedom to form associations

In large part, this section reflects the country’s bad experience during the Martial Law years, when the right to assemble and form associations was unduly abridged. Obviously, however, it is equally clear that the government can exercise its police power and abridge this right if the association in question threatens the legal order. Section 10

Section 10. No law impairing the obligation of contracts shall be passed. SEKSYON 10. Hindi dapat magpatibay ng batas na sisira sa pananagutan ng mga kontrata. Discusses the “sanctity” of contracts and obligations

Laws affecting contracts cannot be applied retroactively
Aside: all contracts illegal in nature are non-binding
Section 4
“No law shall be passed abridging the freedom of speech, of expression, or of the press, or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and petition the government for redress of grievances.” 1.) Freedom of speech is not absolute, neither is a free press (more on that on the next slide) 2.) Freedom of assembly refers mainly to peaceful demonstrations related to public affairs

- Contrast: in Singapore, for large assemblies one must secure a public entertainment license 3.) Right to petition i.e. to take up one’s grievances with government without fear of persecution Freedom of Speech – means an individual is free to speak or utter whatever he wants without prior restraint. Right to a Free Press – means an individual is free to write, publish, and circulate whatever he pleases without restraint. Speech and expression refer to any form of...
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