DNYANESH KUMAR POLITICAL SCIENCE
To the modern governance of India, the most important instructive part of Arthashastra is the machinery of government. About bureaucracy Kautilya feels that, government servants are to be enthused to actively help the administration in carrying out orders by granting them promotion in salary, pension, financial help, and agricultural lands and also by giving them permanent employment.
Authority is obeyed by the people on account of sanctions behind orders, position of the officer concerned who issues authority and qualities possessed by the officer.
All the members of the bureaucracy who derive their authority from the king, stand before the people as representatives of the royal authority and are ultimately responsible to the king. This is evident from the reference in Arthashastra to the enforcement of orders, sending of writs and the procedure of forming royal writs.
According to Kautilya, the state is the only guarantor of peace and it administers -this responsibility through the enforcement of Danda i.e. punishment. Danda makes a man righteous and danda is to be applied with justice. Dandaniti is the oldest name for Arthashastra.
Kautilya regards the study of dandaniti as indispensable. Dandaniti literally means, 'the use or the employment of the rod. Danda, as the scepter held by king is everywhere the symbol of state.
The principle of division of labour, as primary for the proper and efficient working of the machinery of government, is well illustrated in Arthashastra. Kautilya says, "Sovereignty is possible only with assistance. A single wheel can never move, hence the king shall employ ministers and hear their opinion". This bears a certain resemblance to modern business rules.
According to Arthashastra, the more responsible the office is, more numerous and the higher are the qualities required for the officer.
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