From laon Cathedral as an important example of Early Gothic (1140-1194) to Nicholas’s altars and shrines provide an idea of how sumptuous were the furnishing of Gothic churched. The birthplace of Gothic art and architecture was Saint-Denis, where Abbot Suger used rib vaults with pointed arches and stained-glass windows to rebuild the Carolingian royal church. The west façade of Suger’s church also introduced statue-columns on the portal jambs, which important example of Early Gothic (1140-1194) architecture. The Parisian Gothic style became the rage in most of Europe during the 13th century, but many regional styles developed, as in the Romanesque period. German architects eagerly embraced the French Gothic architectural style at Cologne Cathedral and elsewhere.
Flying buttresses made possible huge stained-glass windows. High Gothic windows employ delicate lead cames and bar tracery. The divine colored light they admitted transformed the character of church interiors. High Gothic statue-columns broke out of the architectural straitjacket of their Early Gothic predecessors. At chartres, Rieme, and elsewhere, the sculpted figures move freely and sometimes converse with their neighbors. The high Gothic Rayonnant court style of Louis gave way in the Late Gothic (1300-1500) period to the Flamboyant style seen at saint-Maclou at Rouen. Several important examples of secular architecture survive from the Gothic period, including the bastion and towers of Carcassonne, the hall of the cloth guild in Bruges, and the house of Jaque Coeur in Bourges. In the 13th century, Paris was the center of production of costly moralized Bibles and other illuminated manuscripts in urban workshops of professional artists, which usurped the role of monastic scriptoria. * England
English Gothic churches like Salisbury cathedral differ from their French counterparts in their wider and shorter facades, flat east ends, double transepts, and sparing...