Arizona Statehood and Constitution

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Running head: Arizona

Arizona Statehood and Constitution
Monica Williams
Grand Canyon University: POS 301
November 20, 2011

Arizona Statehood and Constitution
Part I: Arizona Statehood
It is quite a remarkable journey that Arizona embarked upon to make it the forty-eight state of the United States of America. On February 14, 2012 it became an integral part of this new found world of democracy and freedom. Along with its vast cultures and heated temperatures, the architectural design of the city is a pure reflection of the inhabitants who were established here before to make it their own homeland. This essay will examine the road to statehood and analyze the events to make Arizona become a state. The Preterritorial Period

There has been archaeological evidence from over thousands of years that people inhabited Arizona even before the Europeans arrived. It has even been said that Arizona could possibly be the oldest state to be continuously have settlement in the United States, (McClory, 2001). The earliest settlers lived in tiny nomadic groups, (McClory, 2001). Soon the agriculture became more cultured so more permanent settlers started to permanently stay. There were three major cultures that emerged from this change: the Anasazi, Hohokam, and Mogollon, (McClory, 2001). There were no way to tell of a definite type of social organization, just complex architectural designs and artifacts that were left behind can only assume that there was some. The Spanish Period (1539 – 1821)

Spain was the first country to have dominance over Arizona (McClory, 2001). “It established the colony of New Spain on the ruins of the conquered Aztec empire in the early 1500’s” (McClory, p.12, 2001). When Mexico City’s first ruler arrived, there became an expedition of Arizona let by Marcos de Niza. He was sent to find the “seven cities of gold.” Soon after, Francisco Vasquez de Coronado and other significant explorers followed in search of the colorful city. This possibly was one of the first written accounts of Arizona. Permanent settlers began to occupy this region and soon after, Tubac (1752) and Tucson (1775) were among the first official Arizona towns (McClory, 2001). Spain was never really successful in the colonization of Arizona. Only about one thousand Hispanics inhibited in Arizona despite the Spanish control. The Native Americans took more hostile precedence over Arizona until the government took more control after the Spanish rule. The Mexican Period (1821-1848)

Mexico took over political control from Spain once Mexico was established their independence in 1821 (McClory, 2001). Ironically, this endeavor reduced the Hispanic population in Arizona because of the discontinuation of the Apache pacification program (McClory, 2001). The Apache continued to raid and the Hispanic settlers continued to abandoned their homes and crops (McClory, 2001). The Mexico regime deprived government did not have monies nor military resources to control the Apaches. The Apaches were inhibited in remote regions and the government was constantly plagued with civil wars. In 1824, Mexico became a federal republic and Arizona became a part of Occidente (McClory, 2001). Even though this time was short, it became the first establishment of Arizona’s state constitution. In 1831, Occidente split up into two halves, southern Arizona became part of Mexican state of Sonora and northern Arizona became controlled by Native Americans (McClory, 2001). A formal government could not be established because of the lack of population. In 1831, Mexico felt the towns were too small to have a mayor so the top office position was the justice of peace (McClory, 2001). Few families monopolized the positions because of the literacy requirement. Compared to the United States at that time, Arizona contrasted tremendously with their democratic system. U.S. Controlled Period (1848 – 1863)

War was declared in 1846 between the United States and Mexico. Initially...
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