Aristotle was born at Stagira, in Macedonia, as the son of a physician to the royal court. At the age of 17, he went to Athens to study at Plato's Academy. He remained there for about 20 years, as a student and then as a teacher.
When Plato dies in 347 BC, Aristotle moved to Assos, where a friend of his, Hermais was ruler.There he counseled Hermais and married his niece, Pythias. After Hermais was captured and executed by the Persians in 345 BC, Aristotle went to Pella, the capital of Macedonia, and became the tutor of the king's young son Alexander, later known as Alexander the Great. In 335, when Alexander became king, Aristotle returned to Athens and established his own school, the Lyceum. Because much of the teaching and discussions took place while teachers and students were walking the Lyceum grounds, Aristotle's school became known as the Peripatetic ("walking" or "strolling") school. Upon the death of Alexander in 323 BC, strong feelings against the Macedonians began to arise in Athens, so Aristotle moved to a family estate in Euboea, where he died there the following year.
Apart from a few fragments in the work of later writer's, Aristotle's works have been lost. Aristotle also wrote some short technical notes, such as a dictionary of philosophic terms and a summary of doctrines of Pythagoras. Of these, only a few excerpts have been recovered. Still existent are Aristotle's lecture notes for carefully
outlines courses dealing with almost every branch of knowledge and art. These are what Aristotle's reputation as the great philosopher is largely rested upon.
Among the notes that Aristotle wrote are treatises on logic, called Organon (instrument), because they provide the ways that positive knowledge is to be attained. His works on natural science include Physics, which gives...