Aristotle

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Translate and/or explain the following terms: aesity, arêtê, endoxa, ergon, eudaimonia, peccatum, telos, virtus, vitium – Arêtê: Greek for virtue, or excellence
– Virtus and vitium: Latin for virtue and vice
– Endoxon (endoxa): Greek, reputable opinion(s)
Ergon: Greek, function/characteristic activity –
Eudaimonia: Greek, happiness, well being
– Peccatum: Latin, sin
– Telos: Greek, end, aim

Discuss and/or apply the following concepts: doctrine of the mean, the endoxic method, the function argument, omnipotence The Endoxic Method- reputable opinions for ex.Happiness as uniquely human, as under our control, as requiring activity. The Function Argument-To know whether P is a good instance of its kind, you need to know the function (ergon) of P  A virtue/excellence (arētē) of P is a characteristic P needs in order to fulfill its function. The Doctrine of the mean-1.For any given situation, there is a specific affectation appropriate to it, e.g., desire, anger, fear, confidence, envy, joy, pity, etc. 2.For any given affectation, one can exhibit it either too much, too little, or in the appropriate amount 3.The virtuous person always exhibits an affectation in the appropriate amount. -for ex.Truthfulness: virtue regarding telling the truth about oneself Defect: self-depreciating Excess: phony omnipotence- all power and unlimited power

Distinguish goods that are, according to Aristotle, valued for the sake of other things, valued for their own sake, and valued for their own sake and for the sake of other things you want some things that gets you other stuff. for example money so its a sake for other things. valued for own sake-having a yacht gives you pleasure but then enjoying it with more friends and travel the world and give you more pleasure.the one good. happiness is the one thing that every one wants and is valued for its own sake.e

That which is valued only for its own sake and for whose sake everything else is desired
That which is valued for its own sake and for the sake of other things
That which is valued only for the sake of other things

Discuss why Aristotle rejects conventional views that identify happiness with pleasure, honor, and virtue, and what he thinks this tells us about the nature of happiness

Aristotle rejects three common conceptions of happiness—pleasure, honor, and wealth. Happiness, he says, cannot be identified with any of these things (even though all three may be part of an overall happy life). Pleasure, he says, is found in satisfying desires—but whether or not we can satisfy our desires is as much up to chance as it is up to us.

The life of pleasure. Problem: the life fit for a pig
The life of honor. Problem: not under our control
The life of virtue. Problem: compatible with inaction

Distinguish between psychological, somatic, and external goods, explaining how they contribute to Aristotle’s conception of happiness External goods- attractiveness, wealth..
Psychological Goods- mental health..
Somatic goods- “Nonetheless, happiness evidently needs external goods to be added, as we said, since we cannot, or cannot easily, do fine actions if we lack the resources. For, first of all, in many actions we use friends, wealth, and political power just as we use instruments. Further, deprivation of certain things —for instance, good birth, good children, beauty— mars our blessedness. For we do not altogether have the character of happiness if we look utterly repulsive or are ill-born, solitary, or childless; and we have it even less, presumably, if our children or friends are totally bad, or were good but have died

Discuss the roles of habituation and right reason in Aristotle’s analysis of virtuous action function of human beings is knowledge and it what separates from animals. virtuous action is what a rational person who acts for the right reason. but you also have to feel the correct...
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