Main Points Empirical Knowledge and the Realm of the Senses • • Aristotle rejects Plato’s notion that the Forms exist separately from the world; he envisions Forms existing in the world of the senses. This shift enables Aristotle to think in terms of empirical research.
Aristotle the Scientist • The importance of logic and observation for Aristotle; his intellectual interests in ethics, metaphysics, politics, drama, rhetoric, and so forth.
Aristotle and Virtue Virtue and Excellence • For Aristotle “virtue” means doing something with excellence.
Teleology: The Concept of Purpose • Aristotle’s theory that everything has a purpose.
The Human Purpose • • • The telos for humans as a species and the telos for an individual person are both defined by that species’ or person’s potential. The human purpose is to use one’s reason well. Aristotle’s two forms of virtue: Intellectual and moral. Theoretical and practical wisdom.
The Golden Mean • The Golden Mean: Not too much, and not too little.
TIP Many students seem to think that Aristotle by his theory of the Golden Mean is praising mediocrity or is envisioning some bland average as a moral ideal. On the contrary Aristotle praises excellence as virtuous, and that requires the best possible effort. But the “best” effort is not the same as the “most” effort: That would be in
excess. Aristotle believes it is virtuous to know when an effort is sufficient; you may want to ask your friends for examples from personal experience (such as putting the right amount of effort into studying for an exam, writing a term paper, or—on a personal level—being the right kind of friend). The best possible (virtuous) result is far from being an average result;...