Argumentative Research Paper on Evolution

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Cecilia Covarrubias

Professor Rios
English 100
3rd October 2011
Evolution’s False Claims
One of the biggest and most controversial question of the world is where and/or how did everything (animals, plants, and humans) come to existence. All regions around the world have their own theory as to where and how everything did come from. But which is correct? Some argue that the theory of evolution has all the answers we need to know about the world we live in. Yet others strongly oppose the theory of evolution and believe that the world and its inhabitants is the product of intelligent design by a creator. The theory of intelligent design does not necessarily have to tie in with religion, but in most cases it does. Evolution is a relatively new theory in comparison to how long the theory of intelligent design has been around. Charles Darwin is said to have ignited the debate we have to this day about creation through evolution. Darwin brings up many key terms that basically sums up his whole argument. They are natural selection and survival of the fittest—which basically states the most suitable creature will survive while the less suitable die off. But does this really prove that evolution is the correct theory to believe in? There is not enough evidence to prove that the evolution theory is correct. The theory that life is a product of intelligent design by a creator seems to be the most reasonable explanation for the world and all its inhabitants because of the complexity of all living things, the variety of creatures, and the lack of evidence and support that contributes to the theory of evolution.

An argument that supports intelligent design is the argument of irreducible complexity. This argues that certain biological systems are too complex to have evolved from simpler predecessors. Natural selection and mutations by chance cannot have produced such complex creatures we have today. An example of an irreducibly complex structure that could not have been formed through mutation or “natural” causes is the bacterial flagellum. The bacterial flagellum is composed proteins and parts such as a paddle, a rotor, and a motor. The bacterial flagellum becomes useless if any part of the structure is removed. It is said to be improbable that the proteins and parts of the flagellum could have all come together at once by pure chance. If such a small thing such as the bacterial flagellum is so complex, then imagine how complex everything else in living beings are. There is absolutely no way that spontaneous mutation or natural selection could have produced such creatures with complex structures.

The thought that spontaneous genetic mutation created all current living things is a flawed argument. Mutations are changes in genomic sequence in either the DNA sequence of a cell’s genome or the DNA/RNA sequence of a virus. They are sudden and spontaneous changes in the cell. Even in the present day the word “mutation” has a negative connotation. Mutations are classified as errors that occur during meiosis or DNA replication. It is said that a beneficial mutations are a rare occurrence. “If evolution is to occur…living things must be capable of acquiring new information or alteration of their stored information” (Simpson 772). This does not support that mutation cannot support the evolution theory. The encoding of genes in DNA is considered a form of information similar to that of a book. A mutation is similar to a letter in a word being randomly changed to some other letter. After the letter is changed, either a new word that makes sense is formed or a word that has no meaning is formed. Due to this word being changed the whole sentence will also be changed. The sentence will most likely become meaningless. Errors reducing the information in DNA are considered deleterious, and mutations cause these errors. “The one systematic effect of mutation seems to be a tendency towards degeneration.” (Huxley 7). Genetic mutations cause...
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