Argumentation B. Fallacy

Only available on StudyMode
  • Topic: Fallacy, Logical fallacies, Ad hominem
  • Pages : 4 (587 words )
  • Download(s) : 156
  • Published : June 29, 2012
Open Document
Text Preview
FALLACY
* Is an error in argumentation

Formal Fallacies
* Committed against the form of the argument

Informal Fallacies
* Committed because of an unclear language or content or irrelevance of the premises

INFORMAL FALLACIES

Fallacies in Language / Ambiguity

A. Fallacy of Equivocation
- using a term in different meanings in the argumentation

B. Fallacy of Amphibology
- using a phrase or a complete sentence whose meaning is ambiguous because the grammatical construction can be interpreted in various ways

C. Fallacy of Composition
- taking jointly what should be taken separately
- Parts → Whole

D. Fallacy of Division
- taking separately what should be taken jointly
- Whole → Part

E. Fallacy of Accent or Prosody
- arises from ambiguous use of a word that may result to a different meaning when accented or from a false emphasis in speech

F. Fallacy of Figures of Speech
- concluding erroneously a similarity of meaning based on the similarity of word structure.

Fallacies of Matter

A. Fallacy of Accident
- arises from confusion of what is essential or necessary and what is merely accidental

B. Sweeping Generalization
- arguing from the truth of an General statement to the truth of a qualified statement - General→ Specific

C. Hasty Generalization
- arguing from the truth of qualified statement to the truth of an General statement - Specific → General

Fallacy of Relevance

A. Ignoring the Issue
- One does not prove or disapprove the point at issue

1. Argumentum ad Populum (appeal to the people)
- Appeals to the prejudices or biases and passions of the people

2. Argumentum ad Baculum (appeal to might / power)
- uses threat

3. Argumentum ad Verecundiam (appeal to shame / modesty)
- To convince or persuade by pointing out the dignity of those who adhere to a certain view.

4. Argumentum ad Misericordiam (appeal to pity)
- It leaves reasons aside and pleads for mercy

5....
tracking img