A long history lies behind the separation of Taiwan and China sow how China and Taiwan have been separated from each other. After China lost a humiliating war with Japan in 1895, the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed, which ended the first Sino-Japanese War. China had to cede the province of Taiwan to the Japanese. The fact that Taiwan was ceded is significant because China no longer had any rightful claim over them. The people in Taiwan refused to submit to the Japanese and initiated a rebellion against them. The Japanese quickly crushed the rebellion and for the next 50 years the Japanese occupied Taiwan stringently. It was not until 1945 when the Japanese were finally defeated that Taiwan was freed. At this point, the Chinese unlawfully took control of Taiwan, and set up their own government. Chinese government authorities caused resentment among the people in Taiwan. In February of 1947, two years after China took over Taiwan, the people of Taiwan revolted against the Chinese. However they were able to quell the uprising in a matter of months and afterwards the Chinese declared Taiwan a province one of their own provinces (Encarta 1998).
Following a tough war with Japan, China needed time to heal its wounds. However Chinese Communists took advantage of China's condition and started a nationwide revolution. The Nationalist Army, having just fought a grueling war with Japan, was very vulnerable at the time. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, had little trouble overthrowing the Nationalists and took over the country in 1949 ( Sherman, 1998 ). As a result, Chiang Kai-shek and the Nationalists fled to Taiwan. The Communists' plan to invade Taiwan, however, was tharwted when the United States intervened by sending naval forces to defend the island. For the remainder of the 1950's, the United States defended Taiwan from any invasion by the Communists. In the March of 1954, Chiang Kai-shek was reelected as the president of the Republic of China (Taiwan). The government and the United States agreed to a mutual-defense treaty, which stated that the United States would take punitive action against China if the Communists attacked Taiwan.
Chiang Kai-shek brought over Taiwan's original Constitution from China. This Constitution became moot during the Japanese rule over Taiwan. Another Constitution was drafted at the conclusion of World War II, but it was not until 1946 when the final document was approved. After elections were held in 1947 and 1948, it became the basis of Constitutional government in areas controlled by the Nationalists, including Taiwan ( Whitney, 1998 ). The Constitution was created to have a government that was a mixed presidential and parliamentary system, with a greater emphasis on the presidential system. The political system was a unitary one, though it had some characteristics similar to a federal system. To ensure that no part of the government becomes corrupt, there are more provisions for the separation of powers and checks and balances written into the constitution than in Western constitutions (Copper 1999). Taiwan has worked hard to create a constitution that would be fair and just to its people.
Taiwan enjoyed a time of prosperity after signing the treaty with the United States. During this time...