Are There Universal Human Rights

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Human Rights in Global Perspective

Are there Universal Human Rights?
Anila Behramaj

5/3/2015
Table of Contents

Introduction (History of Human Rights)……………..........................……………………….1 First Paragraph (The importance of Universal Human Rights)…………………………..1-2 Second Paragraph (The documents):…………………………...…………………………..2-3 1. Magna Carta 1215 (The first document of Human Rights)…….…….……..…2 2. Declaration of Independence of America (1776)………………….…………2-3 3. Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen (1789)………………..……………..3 Third Paragraph (Critics of Universal Human Rights)……………………………..……..3-5 1. Edmund Burke (English Philosopher)…………………………………………3-4 2. Jeremy Bentham (Founder of Utilitarianism)………………………………...…..4 3. H.L.A Hart (English Philosopher)……………………………………………......4 Other Critiques of Universal Human Rights (Cultural Relativism & Feminism)……….4-5 Conclusion……………………………………………………………………….……………5-6 Work Cited Page……………………………………………………………………………….7

Introduction
The world tired from the World War I and II and its catastrophic consequences wanted to do something that will somehow prevent these wars from happening by implementing some limits on how far you can go on violating somebody’s rights. In April 1945, representatives from fifty nations met in San Francisco full with good faith and trust. The objective of the United Nations Conference on International Organization was to form a global body to advance peace and prevent future wars. The beliefs of the organization were expressed in the preface to its proposed sanction: "We the peoples of the United Nations are determined to save succeeding generations from the scourge of war, which twice in our lifetime has brought untold sorrow to mankind” (United Nations, 5). After this, on 10 December 1948 in Paris, the Declaration of Universal Human rights was established (UDHR, 2). This all sound right and good but the real question is “Are there really universal human rights, undisputable and innate?” I think that universal human rights exists to some extents but not in a such simply way of saying that all human rights are universal and innate. This essay will make a more philosophical critique to the concept that human rights are universal and innate. To put these arguments in context, I will consider the historic origins of human rights by looking at the Magna Carta, The Declaration of Independence and The Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen. Finally, I will argue against the claims that every human being has rights in respect to factors such as government, geographical location, culture, and religion.

The importance of Universal Human Rights
The language of human rights is the main generally accessible language that approves and protects the cases of women and children against the mistreatment they face in patriarchal and tribal social orders; it is the main language that empowers subordinate persons to see themselves as good operators and to act against oppressions such as slavery, arranged marriages, child labor, and so on that are sanctioned by the weight and power of their societies. These operators search out human rights protections absolutely on the grounds that it legitimizes their challenges against oppression. What is important to know is the purpose that human rights has towards people, not their origins, and the capacity that human rights have to protect the vulnerable persons in the society. In addition to this, as stated above I believe that universal human rights exist in some extents, but lately we have been witness of cruel crimes that have been committed to humans by humans themselves and as far those crimes go, universality of human rights becomes questionable. The documents

1. The fight for human rights has been enhanced in documents decades ago. Beginning with...
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