History of World Architecture
Final Exam Paper
1) Architecture's role in creating an urban vision varies from creating feature buildings to providing background consistency while aspiring to implement an overall concept for a city. Discuss how architecture operates in both ways using specific examples, along with their associated urban strategies, in three of the following cases: * Paris under Baron Haussmann's direction
* Michelangelo's Campidoglio
* Antonio Sant'Elia's Citta Nuova
Architecture’s role in creating an urban vision varies from creating feature buildings to providing background consistency while aspiring to implement an overall concept for a city. In achieving urban visions architects formulate urban designs that connect places and people, nature, movements and built fabric. These designs strive to ensure that urban centers are of distinct identity and beauty; have economic variability, social equity and environmental stewardship. Urban designing brings together landscape planning, architectural designs, transport policy, development economics creating a vision for an area. Urban designing is also involved in deploying skills and resources to bring the urban vision to reality. Through these urban visions there is establishment of unique architecture, identifiable landmarks, pleasant public places, lively commercial centers, attractive and safe public areas and aesthetically pleasing elements in the public realm. Paris under Baron Haussmann's direction
After the French revolution Baron Haussmann was appointed by napoleon III to modernize Paris city and so if you tour Paris city Baron Haussmann work permeates most parts of the city. Baron’s architectural work focused at encouraging economic growth by improving on the roads layout to enhance easy transportation. To achieve his urban vision he demolished the narrow streets that had been constructed before and replaced them with wider ones. This project of modernizing Paris incorporated all the aspects of urban planning such as the city facilities, the sewer and drainage patterns, building facades and also affected every other aspect of the city which led to his approach to urban planning to be vehemently criticized. In redesigning the city Haussmann introduced new building styles and also established specifications for construction, and the appearance of the buildings and these included the number of floors that a building had to have and the height. Most of Haussmann buildings can be recognizes by their grey roofs, stone facades and balconies in the fifth and second floors. Most buildings designed by Haussmann have five to seven floors and thus can house several families under the same roof. These designs of houses made Paris neighborhoods accessible to variety of social classes. The ground floor of these buildings was typically for businesses and the first floor housed the business owners. The second floor housed the wealthy families who wanted to live away from noise pollution that was caused by the roads. The higher floors were reserved as servant quarters and comprised of common facilities and small independent rooms.
Michelangelo’s plan to revive a site of great importance Capitoline hill in resulted to the famous Piazza del Campidoglio. Capitoline hill was the center of civic government and Pope Paul III Farnese requested Michelangelo to redesign the square. Michelangelo redesigned palazzo Senatorio and other buildings that surrounded the square. He began by restoring the old buildings and designing a statue of the roman emperor Marcus Aurelius that is still intact. By modeling the entire town square Michelangelo displayed typical ambition of patronage and ability of renaissance to compose an image for the city as a whole. In his renaissance art work he displayed eagerness to develop and portray the political potential of natural imagery. Michelangelo’s designs, some of which were...
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