Archaeology Notes

Only available on StudyMode
  • Topic: Primate, Fossil, Geologic time scale
  • Pages : 56 (19976 words )
  • Download(s) : 592
  • Published : June 16, 2012
Open Document
Text Preview
Kenyatta University |
INSTITUTUTE OF OPEN LEARNING|
AHT 202 EARLY AFRICAN ARCHAEOLOGY|
|
|
W. KENNEDY GITU, L.K. NGARI, W.S. NDIIRI|
1/4/2012|

|

Table of Contents
Definition of Terms 3
Fossils in Geological Context 5
The Earth in the Cenozoic 11
Origins of Primates 17
The Basis for Human Evolution 23
Origins of the Genus Homo 28
Origins of Modern Humans………………………………………………………………………………………………………………... 32 Behavior and Evolution of Early Hominines……………………………………………………………………………………………39 African Pre- Historic Art…………. …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….49

Definition of Terms
Angular torus a thickened bony ridge on the back of the parietal Biostratigraphy the use of biological organisms found in rocks to correlate ages between sites. Bipedalism refers to locomotion e.g., walking, jogging, running, etc., on two legs. Geology, is the study of the earth, which allows us to understand the preservation, age, and environment in which fossils are found. Gracile means slender. Most of them were relatively small, slender, and delicate boned Lithostratigraphy the use of characteristics of the rock layers to correlate across regions Loess windblown sediments

Occipital torus, a ridge of bone that runs horizontally across the occipital Palaentology, a field that take its name from the Greek words for “old” (paleos) and “existence” (ontos), is devoted to gleaning all the information that can be extracted from the fossils. Paleosol ancient soil

Petrifacation the process of turning bone into stone through the absorption minerals from the surrounding soil or ground water that eventually replace the organism’s original inorganic tissues. Phytoliths opaline silica bodies that are secreted by grasses whose shape is often characteristic of that plant. Plantigrade fashion walking on the soles of the feet rather than on their knuckles Plesiadapiforms, primitive form in the Pliocene thought to be an ancestor of primates although much controversy exist. Postorbital bar, a bony ring encircling the eye, a key feature that characterizes primates, indicating the importance of vision to the order. Robust larger jaws accompanied by pronounced sagittal crests in the case of males.  They also had much larger back teeth (premolars and molars) and smaller front ones (incisors) Stratigraphy is the study of the distribution of layers in a soil Supraorbital torus or the brow ridge on the front of the skull Taphonomy is the study of what happens to organism from the time they die to their discovery is used. This approach may include both the biological and geological processes. Tephrostratigraphy the identification of volcanic ash by its chemical fingerprint of major, minor and trace elements The Geologic Time Scale (GTS) is divided into nested sets of time. These are from the most inclusive to the least inclusive these are eons, eras, periods, and epochs. Turnover large extinction and replacement of many species. Uniformitarianism suggests that processes operating today are also those that operated in the past and thus they can explain the fossil and geological record.

Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
In this chapter we will examine fossils in geological context, geological timescales and dating methods. FOSSILS IN GEOLOGICAL CONTEXT
Techniques developed over a period of the 50 years allow scientists to provide a more accurate context of our understanding of the evolutionary past. To understand the past we study fossils. As preserved remnants of once living things, fossils provide information about the past life. Palaentology, a field that take its name from the Greek words for “old” (paleos) and “existence” (ontos), is devoted to gleaning all the information that can be extracted from the fossils. A fossil without its context is almost useless because there is no way of assessing how old it is, what kind of environment it lived in, what other animals it might have lived around it. In order to answer the above...
tracking img