Archaea and Eubacteria

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Primarily, the Archaea were once believed to be just another rare group of bacteria, because like bacteria, they are single-celled microscopic prokaryotic organisms with no membrane bound nucleus (http://www.fossilmuseum.net/Evolution/archaeaevolution.htm). Despite the similarities in the cell structure of Eubacteria and Achaea, molecular research by Dr Carl Woese and his co-workers indicated that they differ significantly on the molecular level (Bacteria in Biology, Biotechnology and medicine, Paul singleton). In this essay, am going to discuss the differences and similarities in the fundamental cellular feature of both organisms. Even though both Archaea and eubacteria have a cell wall to maintain rigidity throughout the cell, there are very significant differences between both cell walls. All Archaea lack the muramic and amino acids feature present in the peptidoglycan cell wall of most bacteria cells. A gram positive Archaea’s cell wall contain Pseudomurein that has N-acetyltalosaminuronic acid and Beta (1, 3) glycosidic bonds instead of N-acetylmuramic acid and Beta glycocidic (1, 4) in bacteria’s peptidoglycan. Consequently, unlike Eubacteria all Archaea have the ability to resist attack by lysozyme and beta Lactam antibiotics like penicillin (Microbiology, Preston Scott). However, both possess a crystal-like protein surface that act as selective medium to solute entrance. (The Archaea- a biochemical perspective Clive Bullock). Furthermore, both prokaryotes differ in cell membrane structure, Archaea has branched hydrocarbon chains linked to glycerol by ether bonds. A major structure that contributes to increased chemical and thermal stability in Archaea is the way in which two diether glycerols are linked together covalently to form long chain diglycerol diether. Thus Archaea cells have the capability to withstand extreme temperature range (microbiology, Preston Scott) unlike Eubacteria with straight chains of fatty acids attached by ester links. This...
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