Arch Notes

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Archaeology Final
What you should know after class post 16
Short answer and matching
Violence: war vs. homicide vs. capital punishment: war-people who are fighting don’t have reason aside for their country whereas the other two are very personal; war is the “us vs. them” mentality, homicide- targeting one person whom we have a grievance toward, capital punishment- targeting one person in society that everyone has a grievance toward; war is against people you probably don’t know whereas you know the other people (social substitution); fighting for territory (farming vs. hunting and gathering) vs. segments (farming vs. hunting and gathering) ; in war we see mass graves, bodies unmarked and splayed out rather than flexed (nicely put in grave). •Looting: digging without recovering context. Antiquities market (where people can get it) and supply and demand, problem with market is that there is a demand for it. Commodification important. Museums play important role in antiquities market because people cash in finds for prestige and money. •Farming- Neolithic revolution 9-10,000 BC in earliest areas ranging to a couple thousand BC in new world. Farming wasn’t an invention, rather than an adoption. Farming forces you to b tethered to your land, takes more work, takes time, less varied diet (less healthy), easier for disease to spread, riskier from year to year, variability from year to year. Hunting/gathering-extensive; farming-intensive. Adopted somewhat reluctantly. Variables incurring for people to rely on farming: population density. •Leaders: scalar stress- more people so harder to make a collective decision where everyone is an equal contributor. Leader reduces scalar stress and helps society function. Group needs to function under stress (i.e. war) so leaders emerge. Human tendencies where there is an aversion to leadership. Abundance- Gift giving is a way of leadership because you get people in your debt. Creates an obligation to reciprocate. •...
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