(06 Oct -– 24 Oct 73)
1.The war between the Arabs and the Israel which broke out in the Middle East on 6 Oct, 1973 is known to the Arabs as the War of Ramadan to the Israelis as the Yom Kippur War and generally to the others in the West as the Oct war. The Arabs tried to regain their territories lost in the earlier wars against Israel. After the defeat of 1956 war Egypt was helped by the Soviet Union and began to rebuild her armed forces from the grd up. Conti for six yrs she equipped and trained her armed forces to fight back the Israelis. Once the Egyptians were fully prepared for the war and they found that the success is definite for her allies, they launched attk at 1400 hrs on 6 Oct 1973 against Israel. Egyptians mounted attks on Bar Lev Lines in the desert and Syrians in the Golan Heights. This war continued up to 24 Oct 73 and ended with a cease-fire. The result was against the Arabs. However, the campaign was fought boldly and the world witnessed the greatest armd battle in the history since World War II in the African desert.
2.The Arab Israeli War- 1973 stands out as the most important conflict since the World War-II, if any one considers the weapon utilization or the effects of the war on world politics and economy. The war also left many lessons for the future.
3.The explosion of 1973, however, was one of the eruptions in a history of simmering relations. The Oct War was the 5th clash between Arabs and Israelis.
a. The first was in 1948-49, which the Israelis call as their "War of Independence".
b.The second war, which occurred in 1956. President Nasser had nationalized and then closed the Suez Canal, which led to an Anglo-French invasion.
c.The third outburst was the, "Six day war" fought between 5-10 June 1967.The Israelis destroyed the air force of Jordan, Egypt, Syria and Iraq.
d.The fourth clash was President Nasser's "War of Attrition" which began in 1967 virtually as soon as the Egyptian Armed Forces had regrouped and had received more Soviet materials. At this time Soviets sup Egypt the Surface to Air Missiles (SAMs) for def against Israeli ac.
4.The Arabs tried to regain their lost territories in these past wars after the defeat of 1956; Egypt was helped by USSR and began to rebuild her armed forces from ground up. Training for continuously six years did this effort. Once they were fully prepared and found that success is definite for the allies, she launched attack at 1400 hours on 6 Oct, 1973 against Israelis and she mounted attack on Bar Lev Line in the desert and Syrians in the Golan Heights.
5.Arabs had all the bitter memories of the past. Twice in quarter century, hundred and thousands of Palestinians had been uprooted from their homeland following Israeli military victories in 1948 and 1967. By 1973 there were more than two million Palestinians living away from their home, six thousand were still living in refugee camps. The chance of any resettlement receded. By the then president Anwar Sadat lost his faith in diplomacy as it became clear to him the pressure of "No peace, no war" which seemed to everyone's advantage did not serve the purpose of the Arabs.
The Causes of War
6. Syrian and Egyptian planned for the surprise attk against the Israelis in 1973 taking the advantage of the fol factors:
a.Israeli forces were extremely over confident.
b.Israeli political ldr were preoccupied with the upcoming election and very reluctant to mob prematurely.
c.Israel's manpower and economic sit could not allow for the losses or pds of extended mob.
d.A moonlit with the moon rising early and setting late would favour the bldg of br.
e.The speed of the Canal current would be minimum and favour the x.
f.It was a holy day in the Jewsih religious Calendar which would find many of the Israeli sldr on leave.
g.Israel would not expect in attk during the month of Ramadan.
7.On 06 Oct 1973, the...