ARJUN K.KUTTY 0909090004 firstname.lastname@example.org 9886513253 RAVEEN VISHNU 090909042 email@example.com 7204101611 ASHWATH P.S 090909052 firstname.lastname@example.org 7204114863 Under the guidance of
Mr. ACHUTHA KINI U
Associate Professor Senior scale
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERNG
| MANIPAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (A Constituent Institution of MANIPAL UNIVERSITY)MANIPAL - 576 104, KARNATAKA, INDIA| |
Air pollution, is a major topic of discussion from the public health point of view, because every individual person breathes approximately 22000 times a day, inhaling about 15 to 22 Kg of air daily. Air pollution can be defined as addition to our atmosphere of any material, which will have a deteriorating effect on life upon our planet. The main pollutants that are contributed by automobiles are carbon monoxide (CO), unburned hydrocarbon (UBHC), oxides of nitrogen and Lead.
In the present world we are concerned about the ill effects the present automobile and industrial sector causes to our environment. The present trends in various sectors are alarming. The following graphs shows the sources of CO2 generated from fossil fuel combustion.
As it is very clear from the diagram the major chunk is from various industries and automobiles. Motor vehicle emissions are composed of the by-products that come out of the exhaust systems or other emissions such as gasoline evaporation. These emissions contribute to air pollution and are a major ingredient in the creation of smog in some large cities. 1.1 MAIN MOTOR VEHICLE EMMISSIONS
Mono-nitrogen oxides NO and NO2 react with ammonia, moisture, and other compounds to form nitric acid vapour and related particles. Small particles can penetrate deeply into sensitive lung tissue and damage it, causing premature death in extreme cases. Inhalation of such particles may cause or worsen respiratory diseases such as emphysema and bronchitis. It may also aggravate existing heart disease. In a 2005 U.S. EPA study the largest emissions of NOx came from on road motor vehicles, with the second largest contributor being non road equipment which is mostly gasoline and diesel stations.
An Aqua Silencer is mainly deals with control of emission and noise in automobile exhaust. By using activated charcoal, perforated tube and an outer shell. An aqua silencer is fitted to the exhaust pipe of engine. The activated charcoal filters the harmful sulphur and nitrous content produced from the engine. Sound produced under water is less hearable than it produced in atmosphere thus controlling noise emission. This is mainly because of small sprockets in water molecules, which lowers its amplitude thus, lowers the sound level. Because of this property water is used in this silencer and hence the name AQUA SILENCER. It is tested in single cylinder 4- stroke diesel engine the noise and smoke level is considerably less than a conventional silencer.
The basic components of an aqua silencer are:
* Perforated tube
* Charcoal layer
* Outer shell
* Non return valve
Perforated Tube :
Coming in a variety of sizes for an equally diverse number of uses, this plastic pipe helps ease soggy yards, flooded fields and wet basements. Perforated pipe can be made of a variety of materials, including iron, PVC, cement and clay, but the most popular type is polyethylene The signature characteristic of perforated pipe is the perforated holes or slots in the pipe. This pipe carries the wetness away and allows the required part to stay dry. The number and size of holes differ between pipes because each combination serves different purposes. Most are relatively small in order to keep...