Apwh Ch9 Review Answers

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APWH Chapter 9 Review
Key Terms
|1. |Charlemagne- King of the Franks (r. 768–814) emperor (r. 800–814). Through a series of military conquests he established the | | |Carolingian Empire, which encompassed | | |All of Gaul and parts of Germany and Italy. Though illiterate himself, he sponsored a brief intellectual revival. | |2. |Investiture controversy- Dispute between the popes and the Holy Roman Emperors over who held ultimate authority over bishops in | | |imperial lands. | |3. |Medieval- Literally “middle age,” a term that historians of Europe use for the period ca. 500 to ca. 1500, signifying its | | |intermediate point between Greco-Roman antiquity and the Renaissance. | |4. |Monasticism- Living in a religious community apart from secular society and adhering to a rule stipulating chastity, obedience, | | |and poverty. It was a prominent element of | | |Medieval Christianity and Buddhism. Monasteries were the primary centers of learning and literacy in medieval Europe. | |5. |Byzantine Empire- Historians’ name for the eastern portion of the Roman Empire from the fourth century onward, taken from | | |“Byzantium,” an early name for Constantinople, the Byzantine capital city. The empire fell to the Ottomans in 1453. | |6. |Kievan Russia- State established at Kiev in Ukraine ca. 879 by Scandinavian adventurers asserting authority over a mostly Slavic| | |farming population. | |7. |Schism- A formal split within a religious community | |8. |Manor- In medieval Europe, a large, self-sufficient landholding consisting of the lord’s residence (manor house), outbuildings, | | |peasant village, and surrounding land. | |9. |horse collar- Harnessing method that increased the efficiency of horses by shifting the point of traction from the animal’s neck| | |to the shoulders; its adoption favors the | | |Spread of horse-drawn plows and vehicles. | |10. |Serf- In medieval Europe, an agricultural laborer legally bound to a lord’s property and obligated to perform set services for | | |the lord. In Russia some serfs worked as artisans | | |and in factories; serfdom was not abolished there until 1861 | |11. |Crusades- Armed pilgrimages to the Holy Land by Christians determined to recover Jerusalem from Muslim rule. The Crusades | | |brought an end to western Europe’s centuries of intellectual and cultural isolation. | |12. |Fief- In medieval Europe, a grant of land in return for a sworn oath to provide specified military service to the king. The | | |kings at first granted fiefs to their vassals (Noble followers) on a temporary basis. | |13. |Pilgrimage- Journey to a sacred shrine by Christians seeking to show their piety, fulfills vows, or gain absolution...
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