Chapter 1: New World Beginnings Mr. Cruz
Shaping North America
>10 million years ago: Mountains formed in North America (Rockies, Sierra Nevada, Cascades, and Appalachians). >2 million years ago: Ice Age in North America, and glaciers shaped the continent. >35,000 years ago: Land bridge created between Eurasia and North America. >10,000 years ago: Sea level rose and America was separated from Eurasia again.
The People of the Americas
>Sophisticated ancient civilizations: Incas, Mayans, and Aztecs. oAdvanced agriculture (maize), elaborate cities with commerce, and made astronomical observations. >Pueblo people: built irrigation from corn fields.
>Mound builders: lived in the Ohio River Valley.
>Other large settlements: Mississippian culture, and Southwest Anasazi people. >“Three Sister” farming: Creek, Choctaw, and Cherokee.
>Iroquois: sustained robust military alliance.
Discoverers of the Americas
>Scandinavian Norse: landed on Northeast North America in 1000 AD, but abandoned settlements. >Christian Crusaders: searched for a shorter route to Asia for goods such as silk, drugs, perfumes, and spices. >Marco Polo (1295): stimulated desire for cheaper route to Asia with tales of China. >Portuguese (1450): developed caravel and began to sail down West African coast, set up trade for gold and slaves, and began plantation system. >Bartholomeu Dias: rounded the tip of Africa.
>Vasco da Gama: reached India.
>Spain: shaping into a modern nation.
oPrinting Press (1450) spread scientific knowledge.
oCompass eliminated uncertainties at sea.
Christopher Columbus and the “New World”
>Christopher Columbus: an Italian who was given 3 ships by the Spanish king and queen. >Oct. 12, 1492: Columbus landed in the Bahamas (although he thought he had landed in the Indies), and he called the natives “Indians”. >New World stimulated Europe’s market, capital, and technology with Africa’s...