APUSH Key Terms
Conquistador- one of the Spanish conquerors of Mexico and Peru in the 16th century.
Aztec Moctezuma- was the ninth tlatoani or ruler of Tenochtitlan, reigning from 1502 to 1520. The first contact between indigenous civilizations of Mesoamerica and Europeans took place during his reign, and he was killed during the initial stages of the Spanish conquest of Mexico
Treaty of Tordesilas- signed at Tordesillas (now in Valladolid province, Spain), 7 June 1494, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between Crown of Portugal and Crown of Castile(Spain)
Iroquois Confederacy- A Native American confederacy inhabiting New York State and originally composed of the Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, and Seneca peoples, known as the Five Nations. After 1722 the confederacy was joined by the Tuscaroras to form the Six Nations. Also called Iroquois League
Pope’s rebellion- took place in the late 17th century in what was at the time, the Spanish Southwest (Arizona, New Mexico, California...). The Spanish, continuing to search for precious metals to send back to Spain, used/enslaved the native peoples (in this case, the Pueblos in today's New Mexico area).
Spanish Armada- the Spanish fleet that sailed against England under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia in 1588, with the intention of overthrowing Elizabeth I of England and putting an end to her involvement in the Spanish Netherlands and in privateering in the Atlantic and Pacific.
Joint stock company- is a business entity which is owned by shareholders. Each shareholder owns the portion of the company in proportion to his or her ownership of the company's shares (certificates of ownership)
Virginia Company charter- refers collectively to a pair of English joint stock companies chartered by James I on 10 April 1606 with the purposes of establishing settlements on the coast of North America.
John Smith- He was a leader of the Virginia Colony (based at Jamestown) between September 1608 and August 1609, and led an exploration along the rivers of Virginia and the Chesapeake Bay.
Powhatan’s Confederacy- group of Native North Americans belonging to the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock
John Rolfe- (1585–1622) was one of the early English settlers of North America. He is credited with the first successful cultivation of tobacco as an export crop in the Colony of Virginia and is known as the husband of Pocahontas, daughter of the chief of the Powhatan Confederacy.
House of Burgesses- he first assembly of elected representatives of English colonists in North America.  The House was established by the Virginia Company, who created the body as part of an effort to encourage English craftsmen to settle in North America and to make conditions in the colony more agreeable for its current inhabitants
Lord Baltimore- Cecilius Calvert, 2nd Baron Baltimore (August 8, 1605 – November 30, 1675), was an English peer who was the first Proprietor and Proprietary Governor of the Province of Maryland, and ninth Proprietary Governor of the Colony of Newfoundland.
Encomienda- was a legal system that was employed mainly by the Spanish crown during the colonization of the Americas to regulate Native American labor. In the encomienda, the Spanish crown granted a person a specified number of natives for whom they were to take responsibility.
James Oglethorpe- (22 December 1696 – 30 June 1785) was a British general, Member of Parliament, philanthropist, and founder of the colony of Georgia
The Toleration Act 1688- also referred to as the Act of Toleration was an Act of the Parliament of England. The Act allowed freedom of worship to Nonconformists who had pledged to the oaths of Allegiance and Supremacy and rejected transubstantiation, i.e., Protestants who dissented from the Church of England such as Baptists and Congregationalists but not to Catholics.
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