APUSH Discussion Questions Unit 1 (Ch. 1-6)
2) The Indian cultures of the New World had several common characteristics but also some differences that made them unique. A main common quality of the Indians is that they all depended on the cultivation of corn. The timing that corn cultivation reached their cultures reflected their development. Most of the Indian tribes were all small, scattered, and impermanent settlements. However there were a few exceptions, such as the Aztecs who prospered greatly in number and also the Creek, Choctaw, and Cherokee, whose population grew in favor to the “three-sister” farming technique. In addition, most cultures were matrilineal: power and possessions passed down on the female side. Lastly, the Indian cultures all revered the physical and natural world with spiritual properties and had no desire to manipulate in aggressively. Yet, there were unique characteristics of the different Indian tribes that existed. For example, the Iroquois developed strong political and organizational skills that led to powerful military alliances that other Indian tribes and the colonists had to deal with later on.
3) When the previously separated worlds “collided” with one another, an interdependent global economic system emerged. Europe provided the markets, capital, and technology, while Africa supplied labor, and the New World contributed raw materials. Though this was the main global impact that erupted when the three worlds clashed, there were several other aspects that affected the way of life of the separate peoples. For the Europeans, new plants from the New World, such as maize, beans, tomatoes, and potatoes, transformed the diets of the people of the Old World. These foods contributed to the rapid population growth in Europe. In return, the Europeans brought several different animals to the New World, like horses, swine, and cattle, revolutionizing the lives of the Indian tribes. Unfortunately, the greatest contribution that Europeans made to the lives of the Indians was disease, such as smallpox, yellow fever, and malaria, which ultimately led to death. Ninety percent of the Indians were wiped out quickly. As unintentional “revenge,” the Europeans brought back syphilis to Europe from the New World. Having tasted the goods of the New World, like sugar and tobacco, the people of the Old World craved more. A “sugar revolution” exploded in Europe, and in order to feed that, they looked to Africa to provide slave labor. Chapter 2
1) The interactions between the English settlers and the Indians produced many effects and contributions that would last several generations. For example, Pocahontas and John Rolfe’s marriage became the first interracial unity that would foresee many more to come. The conflicts between the two parties caused the Indians to be banished from the Chesapeake land and eventually separated Indians from White areas. These were the origins of the later reservation system. In response, using horses that were obtained from the Whites, the Indians migrated to the Great Plains.
2) The one-crop plantation economy was the most important factor that shaped the development of England’s southern colonies. The plantations formed the way of life in the southern colonies, developing differently from the New England colonies that did not depend on plantations. The south became dependent on slavery due to the plantations. In addition, a gap between the rich and poor formed as the plantation owners gained more wealth and their tenants/slaves were treated unfairly. Chapter 3
2) The Puritan religious outlook affected the development of the New England colonies by influencing the government and way of life. The only “freemen” were considered those who were members of the church; and only those men were allowed to vote. Religious leaders had a great influence in government. Yet they did not yield absolute power. The Puritans had suffered too much with...